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A Major Project Study Report On Titled

(Special Reference to Udaipur)
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of

Master of Business Administration
Submitted to

Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (
Session 2008-2010 Under the Guidance of: Mr. Mukesh Kumawat Project Guide & Faculty Submitted By: Jitendra Mehra MBA IVth Sem.

 Vision School of Management 
(Affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University & Approved by A I C T E) Udaipur Road, Chittorgarh (Raj.) E-mail: [email protected] Website:

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This MRP is prepared as the partial fulfillment for Two-Year degree Program of MBA curriculum of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. It is expected from an MBA to possess a good communication & effective presentation skills. Objectives of the project report, these are: It is uphold the dignity of individual It is honor all commitments It is committed to quality, Innovation and growth in every endeavor It is responsible Corporate Citizens. The research provides an opportunity to a student to demonstrate application of his/her knowledge, skill and competencies required during the technical session. Research also helps the student to devote his/her skill to analyze the problem to suggest alternative solutions, to evaluate them and to provide feasible recommendations on the provided data. Although I have tried my level best to prepare this report an error free report every effort has been made to offer the most authenticate position with accuracy. This report contains a number of additional features:  Introduces electronic industry in India, general c electronic manufacturing process, SWOT analysis, price & profit to the firm, trend & players, domestic players, market opportunities for investment & company profile & objectives of the report.  On conceptual framework which related to electronic market (in the public sector, interpretative models.  On data analysis & interpretation related to electronic products.  On observation & finding, conclusions & suggestion related to research methodology, data analysis & interpretation which consider the topic of “A STUDY OF CUSTOMER PURCHASE DECISION

A bibliography in project report is provided at the end that should serve as good sources of reference material for learners & researchers in the area. An annexure appears at the end of the report that provides some useful sources of information on the Internet regarding project report. This should prove to be a welcome

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features for those persons who would like to access the net for more information on issues covered in this project report.

This is to certify that Market Research Project Report on “A STUDY OF

CUSTOMER PURCHASE DECISION TOWARDS LAPTOPS. (Special Reference to Udaipur)” submitted by me in Masters of Business Administration Program from Vision
School Of Management, Chittorgarh [Rajasthan Technical University, Kota] is my

original work and the project report has not formed the basis for the award of any diploma, degree, associate ship, fellowship or similar other titles. Embodies the original
work done by me under the able guidance and supervision of Mr. Mukesh Kumawat (Guide & Faculty) Vision School of Management, Chittorgarh. No part of this report has been produced from any other summer project, monograph, report or book and all facts and figures have been confirmed by organizational guide.

—————————–Mukesh Kumawat Project Guide Date———————

—————————–Jitendra Mehra M.B.A. IV Sem. Date——————-

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The successful completion of a Market Research Project Report requires guidance & help from a number of people. I was fortunate to have all the support from my teachers. I therefore take this opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude to the all those who extended their whole hearted help and support to me in completing the project study report work on

I also express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Mukesh Kumawat (Guide & Faculty), who has helped us to do our project. We also thank to other faculty of VSM & respondents for his valuable help in each stage of the project. Because of his co-operation and continuous guidance successful completion of this project study report was made possible. I am sincerely thankful to Dr. A.L. Jain (Director, Vision School of Management) for allowing me to undertake the report and making available all facilities for the successful completion of the report besides guiding me to pursue the study on proper line. I also express my deep sense of gratitude towards Miss. Nisha Jain, Mr. Vibhor Paliwal, Mr. Rahul Jain, Mrs. Pratibha Pagaria, Ms. Shobhika Tyagi (Faculty), P.L. Dashora (Librarian) & all faculty members. No Acknowledge would suffice for the support my family members, my training colleagues, classmates & friends. Lastly, I extend my thanks to all those whose name have not been mentioned way in successfully carrying out the project report. ThankingYou:
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Jitendra Mehra

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India’s premier information, enabling specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product and services that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements. The menu of Industry global services broadly covers IT consulting and professional services in the area of vertical applications, technology integration, ERP implementation and software development. This also includes a complete portfolio of systems and network services for development. This also includes a complete portfolio of systems and network services for Facilities Management, Helpdesks, Systems Supports and network and Internet Implementation. Computer Industry customers include Samsung, Government of Singapore, and AMAL insurance Jurong Port in Singapore and Malaysian’s BSN commercial bank, SIA, DBS bank, Maybank life assurance charted semiconductors. Electronic Industry chosen platform of total technology integration lends itself to some very significant alliances with the global leaders. Today the industry has aligned its operations into five entities that offer seamless linkages for the customers seeking entry into the wired world through total the. ‘Integration solution ands services’. The industry focuses on the ever-growing segment in Imaging, Telecom and Communication products solutions and services. Now it has an exclusive sale and support. The Industry Managed Network Service offerings for corporate include VPNs, ASP offerings, Co Location/ hosting, CDNs, security, corporate internet telephony solutions, technical and consumer help desks, 24/7 Network Operations Centre monitoring and a host of value added networking services. Consumer services include dialup PSTN/ISDN Internet access, Valufon calling cards and VoIP telephony devices.

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Table of Content
 Certificate  Preface  Declaration  Acknowledgement  Executive Summary  Table of Contents I II III IV V VI

Chapter No. 1 A 2 A 3 A • • • •

TITLE Industry Introduction Company Profile & Their Products Conceptual Framework Review of Literature Research Methodology Data Analysis & Interpretation Finding & Conclusion Suggestion Bibliography Annexure

PAGE NO. 1-31 32-55 56-74 75-87 88-90 91-108 109 110 111 112-114

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Chapter No.: 01

Historical Developments
The Electronics Industry in India took off around 1965 with an orientation towards space and defence technologies. This was rigidly controlled and initiated by the government. This was followed by developments in consumer electronics mainly with transistor radios, Black & White TV, Calculators and other audio products. Colour Televisions soon followed. In 1982-a significant year in the history of television in India – the government allowed thousands of colour TV sets to be imported into the country to coincide with the broadcast of Asian Games in New Delhi. 1985 saw the advent of Computers and Telephone exchanges, which were succeeded by Digital Exchanges in 1988. The period between 1984 and 1990 was the golden period for electronics during which the industry witnessed continuous and rapid growth. From 1991 onwards, there was first an economic crises triggered by the Gulf War which was followed by political and economic uncertainties within the country. Pressure on the electronics industry remained though growth and developments have continued with digitalisation in all sectors, and more recently the trend towards convergence of technologies. After the software boom in mid 1990s India’s focus shifted to software. While the hardware sector was treated with indifference by successive governments. Moreover the steep fall in custom tariffs made the hardware sector suddenly vulnerable to international competition. In 1997 the ITA agreement was signed at the WTO where India committed itself to total elimination of all

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customs duties on IT hardware by 2005. In the subsequent years, a number of companies turned sick and had to be closed down. At the same time companies like Moser Baer, Samtel Colour, Celetronix etc. have made a mark globally.

Current Scenario
In recent years the electronic industry is growing at a brisk pace. It is currently worth US$ 32 Billion and according to industry estimates it has the potential to reach US$ 150 billion by 2010. The largest segment is the consumer electronics segment. While is largest export segment is of components. The electronic industry in India constitutes just 0.7 per cent of the global electronic industry. Hence it is miniscule by international comparison. However the demand in the Indian market is growing rapidly and investments are flowing in to augment manufacturing capacity. The output of the Electronic Hardware Industry in India is worth US$11.6 Billion at present. India is also an exporter of a vast range of electronic components and products for the following segments • Display technologies • Entertainment electronics • Optical Storage devices • Passive components • Electromechanical components • Telecom equipment • Transmission & Signaling equipment • Semiconductor designing • Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) This growth has attracted global players to India and leaders like Solectron, Flextronics, Jabil, Nokia, Elcoteq and many more have made large investments to access the Indian market. In consumer electronics Korean companies such as LG and Samsung have made commitments by establishing large manufacturing facilities and now enjoy a significant share in the growing market for products such as Televisions, CD/DVD Players, Audio equipment and other entertainment products. The growth in telecom products demand has been breathtaking and India is adding 2 million mobile phone users every month! With telecom penetration of around 10 per

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cent, this growth is expected to continue at least over the next decade. Penetration levels in other high growth products are equally high and growth in demand for Computer/ IT products, auto electronics, medical, industrial, as well as consumer electronics is equally brisk. Combined with low penetration levels and the Indian economy growing at an impressive 7 per cent per annum, the projection of a US$150 Billion+ market is quite realistic and offers an excellent opportunity to electronics players worldwide.

Electronic Manufacturing Services
India is well-known for its software prowess. But on the hardware front, the progress is rather slow. However, the country has been making gains in this sector also. lready, 50 Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS)/Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) providers are operating in India, ranging from global players including Flextronics and Solectron to indigenous firms including Deltron, TVS Electronics and Sahasra. Further moves by international players are expected to add production in India in the coming years. India’s contract-manufacturing business is expected to nearly triple in revenue over the next five years, a development that will present both opportunities and potential pitfalls for the worldwide electronics supply chain. Revenue generated by Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) providers and Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) in India will expand to $2.03 billion in 2009, rising at a CAGR of 21 per cent from $774 million in 2004. Indian EMS/ODM revenue grew by 20.8 per cent to reach $935 million in 2005. Obvious allure of locating electronics production in India is the nation’s low labor costs. Labor costs for conducting electronics manufacturing in India are between 30 to 40 per cent less than in the United States or in Western Europe. Other equally important benefits from operating in India include a fast-growing domestic market, an excellent education system, the nation’s technology parks and the recent improvements in the country’s transit and utility infrastructure. However, the Indian contract-manufacturing industry is not expected to pose a significant threat to China’s position as the epicenter of electronics manufacturing in the short term. India’s contract manufacturing activities primarily serve the nation’s indigenous demand.

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OEMs primarily outsource manufacturing to cater to the Indian domestic market, although export of Indian-assembled electronic goods does occur. In the longer term, i.e. 2009 onward, it is predicted that India may compete with the Chinese providers in select products as the nation’s share of the global electronics market increases.For OEMs, using contract manufacturing services in India can help them penetrate the local market. However, OEMs face specific risks associated with using contract manufacturers in India. Fluid exchange rates combined with volatile oil and component prices lead to unpredictable costs. Changing government policies along with shifting government regimes also contribute to an unpredictable political environment. Doing business in India is often disjointed, with an inefficient bureaucratic system that causes frequent delays. However, for OEMs able to manage these risks, the opportunity in India is significant. The semiconductor fabrication segment has a small existing base in India with only two fabrication units, which both are developing chips for the defense and strategic sectors. However, semiconductor suppliers are expanding their manufacturing activities in India to serve the growing contract-manufacturing industry in the nation. As evidence of this trend, groundbreaking commenced on a 200 mm fabrication unit in Hyderabad operated by NanoTech Silicon India Ltd. Electronic Contract Manufacturing Revenue

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Recent trends show that an increasing number of engineering and design activities are also being outsorced to EMS companies and they are becoming ODMs (Original Design manufacturers) and also provide final system integration and logistical support E&Y have projected that India can target a share of 1 per cent in North America, 2 per cent in Western Europe, 4 per cent of Asia and 5 per cent of Rest of the World of the Electronics Manufacturing Services market. Thus India can target 2.2 per cent of the world-wide electronics EMS market of US$497 Billion by 2010 which works out to a potential of US$11 Billion. The recent acceleration in EMS activity is mainly due to rapid growth in the electronic Hardware market in all segments particularly rapid growth has taken place in Telecom Infrastructure Equipment, computers, Consumer & Hand held devices. Behind the impressive growth of the electronics industry is the robust and consistent growth in Electronic Hardware market of approximately 25 per cent due to a stable economy & large middle class of 350 million people. The fastest growing segments are demand for telecom services particularly cell phones, internet subscribers & growth in demand for it products with increasing penetration of computers, falling prices & Government support to rapidly encourage usage of IT in all sectors. Within next 5 years penetration of telephone users (both landline & mobile) is projected to increase from 100 to 500 per thousand while PC’s increase from 10 to 30 plus per thousand. Some of the other factors are • Highly talented workforce, especially for design and engineering services with good communication skills. • Rising labor costs in China. • Presence of global Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) majors in India and their plans for increased investments in India. • More outsourcing of manufacturing by both Indian and global Original Equipment Manufacturers

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Production Trend of Different Segments Consumer Electronics Consumer electronics (durables) sector continues to be the main stay of the Indian electronic industry contributing about 32 per cent of the total electronic hardware production. By the end of 2005-06, the market for consumer durables (including entertainment electronics, communitarian and IT products) was Rs 180 billion (US $4.5 billion). The market is expected to grow at 10 to 12 per cent annually and is expected to reach Rs 60 billion (US$13.3 billion) by 2008. The urban consumer durables market is growing at an annual rate Corporate Catalyst India A report on Indian Electronics Industry of seven to 10 per cent, the rural durables market is growing at 25 per cent annually. Some high-growth categories within this segment include mobile phones, TVs and music systems.

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Computer Industry
With sound macroeconomic condition and buoyant buying sentiment in the market, PC sales touched 6.5 million units during 2006-07. The high growth in PC sales is attributed to increased consumption by Industry verticals such as Telecom, Banking and Financial Services, Manufacturing, Education, Retail and BPO/IT-enabled services as well as major e- Governance initiatives of the Central and State Governments. Significant consumption in the small and medium enterprises and increased PC purchase in smaller towns and cities was witnessed during the year. It is expected that increased Government focus on pan-India deployment of broadband at one of the lowest costs in the world will soon lead to accelerated PC consumption in the home market. The growing domestic IT market has now given impetus to manufacturing in India. The year witnessed not only capacity expansion by the existing players, but also newer investments in hardware manufacturing. India is also high on the agenda of electronics manufacturing services companies. This is now a matured industry sector in the country at least as far as various application segments is concerned. State-of-art and reliable SCADA, PLC/Data Acquisition systems are being applied across various sections of the process industry. Latest AC drive systems from smaller to very high power levels also find application in large engineering industries like steel plants and/or metal industries. World class UPS systems are being manufactured in the country to cater to the need of the emerging digital economy. However, it appears there is really no manufacturing base in the country for the whole range of the latest test and measuring instruments which are invariably procured from outside. A good number of Indian companies in the control and instrumentation sector are able to acquire orders for export systems through international competitive bidding. However, the creation of knowledge base in the country through industrial R&D in this critical sector has not been improving as desired. There is still lack of needed R&D activities by the industry looking at the global market. On the part of Department of Information Technology some of the latest technology development and applications in this area include Intelligent SCADA Systems for monitoring and control of Mini Hydel plants, Advanced Traffic Control System for urban

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tranPCation, Intelligent Power Controllers for improvement of quality of electric power, etc. These systems have been successfully developed and applied in real field conditions. Communication & Broadcasting Sector The telecommunication industry has gained tremendous recognition as the key driver for all round development and growth. With about 256 million telephone subscribers (as on Corporate Catalyst India A report on Indian Electronics Industry February, 2007) India has emerged as one of the largest in the world and second largest in Asia. The share of private sector in telecom industry has increased to more than 57 per cent and the contribution of mobile telephony has gone upto 63 per cent on December, 2007. Buoyed by the better-than-expected teledensity in 2005 (11.4 per cent against 8.6 per cent in 2004) due to the mobile boom in India, Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has revised the upwards the target of 22 per cent teledensity by 2007. Broadband connectivity is holding tremendous potential in the country. It is expected that the number of broadband subscribers would reach 20 million by 2010. India has emerged as the second largest market for mobile handsets. Following the unprecedented growth in the mobile market, a number of companies are planning to set up production base for mobile hand sets in the country for meeting local as well as export markets. Direct to Home (DTH) broadcast service has gained more and more popularity during 2005. DTH service is available through National Broadcaster and private DTH service provider. Better quality digital broadcast reception is now available almost everywhere in the country to the common people on their TV sets through the use of small dish antenna and a Set-Top Box (STB).

Strategic Electronics
Though the government has started the process of getting private sector involved in the production of strategic electronics equipments, the private involvement is at its nascent stage. The estimated market for strategic electronics in India during 2005-06 was Rs.32 billion and 95 per cent of this was done by the public sector unit Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL).

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Electronic Components
The total production of components was estimated at Rs. 88 billion during 2005-06. The colour picture tube production is likely to be around 11 million, a decline from 11.2 million in the last year. The production of B&W picture tubes declined further due to decreased market for B&W TVs. The components with major share in the export are CD-R, CPTs, PCBs, DVD-R, connectors, semiconductor devices, ferrites, resistors, etc. Significant developments took place during the year in the area of colour picture tubes and colour glass parts. Another CPT manufacturer successfully launched manufacture of pure flat tubes, leading to availability of flat tubes from three indigenous sources. The CPT units continued expansion of capacities to improve further their global competitiveness. Two more lines were commissioned during the year, one for manufacture of large size flat colour Corporate Catalyst India A report on Indian Electronics Industry picture tubes and the second for small size. Two more lines are likely to come up next year. Keeping pace with the downward trend in prices of color TVs, the prices of CPTs also fell. Production Trend of Different Segments Computers & One Communication Broadcast Equipment of the CPT

manufacturers successfully prototype of the 42 Plasma developed a


Panel. This marked a major achievement of a milestone in the area of developing from

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green field a Technology development initiative in a Hi Tech area. The focus of development was in optimizing the Plasma Display Cell design to achieve the desired parameters of Contrast and Brightness, achieving high speed response times and parallely designing the Scan and sustain driver boards to match the Panel parameters. A fully functional video Controller was also designed and developed to match the Logic Circuits of the PDP Panel. In the year 2006, the company plans to begin selling commercially the PDP Panels developed completely inhouse and the focus there on will be to create low cost products through Technological breakthroughs. The color glass parts manufacturer implemented major expansion of its capacity to meet increased local requirement due to substantial growth in CPT production. The unit also started manufacture of glass parts for pure flat tubes as the demand for such tubes increased due to one more unit launching production during the year. Both the existing manufacturers of B/W glass parts continued the production of colour funnels in their existing lines. They were also planning to make large investment to set up manufacturing facilities for colour panels in near future. A number of existing units imported capital goods under various schemes for expansion of their capacities in PCBs, connectors, cable assemblies, colour picture tubes, compact disc, glass parts for colour picture tubes, etc. Corporate Catalyst India A report on Indian Electronics Industry The serviceable market for professional grade components such as PCBs, semiconductor devices, connectors, wound components, antennas, etc., is likely to go up due to launch of manufacture of mobile handsets in the country.

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History of Laptop Computers – History
Left – Modern Laptop Today It is a little hard to determine what was the first portable or laptop computer, the first portable computers did not look like the booksized and folding laptops that we are familiar with today, however, they were both portable and lapable, and lead to the development of notebook style laptops. I have outlined several potential firsts below and how each qualifies, many of the off-site links provide good photos of the computers that will let you see the progression in design.

The First Laptop? Maybe
Designed in 1979 by a Briton, William Moggridge, for Grid Systems Corporation, the Grid Compass was one fifth the weight of any model equivalent in performance and was used by NASA on the space shuttle program in the early 1980’s. A 340K byte bubble memory lap-top computer with die-cast magnesium case and folding electroluminescent graphics display screen. HP Mini 210 NotebookSuperior Entertianment Computing, Stunning Notbook Designs, Visit Us! Gavilan Computer As The First Laptop? Manny Fernandez had the idea for a well-designed laptop for executives who were starting to use computer. Fernandez, who started Gavilan Computer, promoted his machines as the first “laptop” computers in May 1983. Many historians consider the Gavilan as the first fully functional laptop computer.

The First Laptop Computer – Osborne 1
The computer considered by most historians to be the first true portable computer was the Osborne 1. Adam Osborne, an ex-book publisher founded Osborne Computer and produced the Osborne 1 in 1981, a portable computer that weighed 24 pounds and cost

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$1795. The Osborne 1 came with a five-inch screen, modem port, two 5 1/4 floppy drives, a large collection of bundled software programs, and a battery pack. The shortlived computer company was never successful.

More History of Laptop Firsts
• •

Also released in 1981, was the Epson HX-20, a battery powered portable computer, with a 20-character by 4 line LCD display and a built-in printer. In January of 1982, Microsoft’s Kazuhiko Nishi and Bill Gates begin discussions on designing a portable computer, based on using a new liquid crystal display or LCD screen. Kazuhiko Nishi later showed the prototype to Radio Shack who agree to manufacture the computer.

• • • • •

In 1983, Radio Shack released the TRS-80 Model 100, a 4 lb. battery operated portable computer with a flat and more of a laptop design. In February 1984, IBM announced the IBM 5155 Portable Personal Computer. Three years later in 1986, Radio Shack released the improved and smaller TRS Model 200. In 1988, Compaq Computer introduces its first laptop PC with VGA graphics the Compaq SLT/286. In 1989, NEC UltraLite was released, considered by some to be the first “notebook style” computer. It was a laptop size computer which weighed under 5 lbs. (second photo)

• •

In September 1989, Apple Computer released the first Macintosh Portable that later evolved into the Powerbook. (second photo) In 1989, Zenith Data Systems released the Zenith MiniPC, a 6-pound laptop computer. (more Zenith laptops)

• In October 1989, Compaq Computer released its first notebook PC, the Compaq LTE. • In March 1991, Microsoft released the Microsoft BallPoint Mouse that used both mouse and trackball technology in a pointing device designed for laptop computers.

In October 1991, Apple Computers released the Macintosh PowerBook 100, 140, and 170 – all notebook style laptops. (more on Powerbooks)

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In October 1992, IBM released its ThinkPad 700 laptop computer. specification for laptop computers.

• In 1992, Intel and Microsoft release APM or the Advanced Power Management • In 1993, the first PDAs or Personal Digital Assistants are released. PDAs are pen-based hand-held computers.

A laptop is a personal computer designed for mobile use and small and light enough to sit on a person’s lap while in use. A laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device (a touchpad, also known as a trackpad, and/or a pointing stick), speakers, and often including a battery, into a single small and light unit. The rechargeable battery (if present) is charged from an AC adapter and typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for two to three hours in its initial state, depending on the configuration and power management of the computer. Laptops are usually notebook-shaped with thicknesses between 0.7–1.5 inches (18–38 mm) and dimensions ranging from 10×8 inches (27x22cm, 13″ display) to 15×11 inches (39x28cm, 17″ display) and up. Modern laptops weigh 3 to 12 pounds (1.4 to 5.4 kg); older laptops were usually heavier. Most laptops are designed in the flip form factor to protect the screen and the keyboard when closed. Modern tablet laptops have a complex joint between the keyboard housing and the display, permitting the display panel to swivel and then lie flat on the keyboard housing. Laptops were originally considered to be “a small niche market” and were thought suitable mostly for “specialized field applications” such as “the military, the Internal Revenue Service, accountants and sales representatives”. But today, there are already more laptops than desktops in businesses, and laptops are becoming obligatory for student use and more popular for general use. In 2008 more laptops than desktops were sold in the US.

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The Epson HX-20
As the personal computer became feasible in the early 1970s, the idea of a portable personal computer information PARC in 1968 and followed. A “personal, portable manipulator” was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox described in his 1972 paper as the “Dynabook”.

The IBM SCAMP project (Special Computer APL Machine Portable), was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the PALM processor (Put All Logic In Microcode). The IBM 5100, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, and was based on the SCAMP prototype. As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly. The Osborne 1, released in 1981, used the Zilog Z80 and weighed 23.5 pounds (10.7 kg). It had no battery, a 5 in (13 cm) CRT screen and dual 5.25 in (13.3 cm) single-density floppy drives. In the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer, the Epson HX-20, was announced.[5] The Epson had a LCD screen, a rechargeable battery and a calculator-size printer in a 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) chassis. Both Tandy/RadioShack and HP also produced portable computers of varying designs during this period. The first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981-82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984-85. The 8150 US$ GRiD Compass 1100, released in 1982, was used at NASA and by the military among others. The Gavilan SC, released in 1983, was the first notebook marketed using the term “laptop”. From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad (Gavilan SC, 1983), the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992) and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top, 1987). Some CPUs were designed specifically for low-power use including laptops (Intel i386SL, 1990), and were supported by dynamic power management features (Intel SpeedStep and AMD PowerNow!) in some designs. Displays reached VGA resolution by 1988 (Compaq SLT/286) and 256-color screens by 1993 (PowerBook 165c), progressing quickly to millions of colors and high resolutions. High-capacity hard drives and optical storage (CD-ROM followed by

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CD-R and CD-RW and eventually by DVD-ROM and the writable varieties) became available in laptops soon after their introduction to the desktops.

The general terms “laptop” or “notebook” can be used to refer to a number of classes of small portable computers: By purpose and (approximately) by screen size:
• •

By features: Budget – a cheap, lower-performance standard-sized laptop;

Desktop replaelectronic – emphasizes performance, is less portable, 15″ and larger screen;

Tablet PC – Has a touch-screen interface, may or may not have a keyboard;

Standard laptop – balances portability and features, 13-15″ screen;

Netbook – A budget subnotebook suited to Internet surfing and basic office applications. Usually has a 9″ or 10″ screen.

Subnotebook – emphasizes portability, has fewer features, 12″ or smaller screen.

Gaming laptop – A larger laptop with a powerful graphics card for playing graphics-intensive computer games.

Rugged – Engineered to operate in tough conditions (strong vibrations, extreme temperatures, wet and dusty environments).

Desktop replaelectronic

XPS M140 Laptop.
desktop replaelectronic computer is a laptop that provides most of the capabilities of a desktop computer, with a similar level of performance. Desktop replaelectronics are usually larger and heavier than standard laptops.

They contain more powerful components and have a 15″ or larger display. [11] Because of their bulk, they are not as portable as other laptops and their operation time on batteries is typically shorter; instead, they are meant to be used as a more compact, easier to carry alternative to a desktop computer. Some laptops in this class use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance for the same price at the expense of battery life; in a few of those models, there

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is no battery at all and the laptop can only be used when plugged in. These are sometimes called desknotes, a portmanteau of the words “desktop” and “notebook,” though the term can also be applied to desktop replaelectronic computers in general. In the early 2000s, desktops were more powerful, easier to upgrade, and much cheaper in comparison with laptops. But in the last few years, the advantages have drastically changed or shrunk since the performance of laptops has markedly increased. In the second half of 2008, laptops have finally outsold desktops for the first time ever. In the U.S., the PC shipment declined 10 percent in the fourth quarter of 2008. In Asia, the worst PC shipment growth went up 1.8 percent over the same quarter the previous year since PC statistics research started. The names “Media Center Laptops” and “Gaming Laptops” are also used to describe specialized members of this class of notebooks.

Sony VAIO P series subnotebook.
A subnotebook, also called an ultraportable by some vendors, is a laptop designed and marketed with an emphasis on portability (small size, low weight and longer battery life) that retains the performance of a standard notebook Subnotebooks are usually smaller and lighter than standard laptops, weighing between 0.8 and 2 kg (2 to 5 pounds); the battery life can exceed 10 hours when a large battery or an additional battery pack is installed. To achieve the size and weight reductions, ultraportables use high resolution 13″ and smaller screens (down to 6.4″), have relatively few ports, employ expensive components designed for minimal size and best power efficiency, and utilize advanced materials and construction methods. Some subnotebooks achieve a further portability improvement by omitting an optical/removable media drive; in this case they may be paired with a docking station that contains the drive and optionally more ports or an additional battery. The term “subnotebook” is usually reserved to laptops that run general-purpose desktop operating systems such as Windows, Linux or Mac OS X, rather than specialized software such as Windows CE, Palm OS or Internet Tablet OS.

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Netbooks are laptops that are light-weight, economical, energy-efficient and especially suited for wireless communication and Internet access. Hence the name netbook (as “the device excels in web-based computing performance”) rather than notebook which pertains to size. With primary focus given to web browsing and e-mailing, netbooks “rely heavily on the Internet for remote access to web-based applications”[19] and are targeted increasingly at cloud computing users who rely on servers and require a less powerful client computer. While the devices range in size from below 5 inches to over 12, most are between 7 and 11 inches and weigh between 0.9 – 1.4 kg (2-3 pounds). Netbooks normally use light-weight operating systems such Linux and Windows XP. Because they’re very portable, Netbooks have a few disadvantages. Because the netbooks are thin, the first such products introduced to the market had their primary internal storage in the form of solid-state drives and not hard disks, which are essential to installing very many programs. Hard disk drive technology and form factors have since been adapted to fit into netbooks. Given their size and use of more rudimentary components compared to notebooks and subnotebooks, netbooks also generally have a smaller-capacity hard drive, slower CPU, and a lower-profile RAM capacity. Recently, Google has announced to be developing an own operating system called Chrome for this market. The big breakthrough for netbook computers did not happen until the weight, diagonal form-factor and price combination of < 1 kg, < 9", < U.S. $400, respectively, became commercially available at around 2008.

Rugged laptop
A Panasonic Toughbook.
A rugged (or ruggedized) laptop is designed to reliably operate in harsh usage conditions such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures, and wet or dusty environments. Rugged laptops are usually designed from scratch, rather than adapted from regular consumer laptop models.

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Rugged notebooks are bulkier, heavier, and much more expensive than regular laptops, and thus are seldom seen in regular consumer use. The design features found in rugged laptops include rubber sheeting under the keyboard keys, sealed port and connector covers, passive cooling, superbright displays easily readable in daylight, cases and frames made of magnesium alloys that are much stronger than plastic found in commercial laptops, and solid-state storage devices or hard disc drives that are shock mounted to withstand constant vibrations. Rugged laptops are commonly used by public safety services (police, fire and medical emergency), military, utilities, field service technicians, construction, mining and oil drilling personnel. Rugged laptops are usually sold to organizations, rather than individuals, and are rarely marketed via retail channels.

Miniaturization: a comparison of a desktop computer motherboard (ATX form factor) to a motherboard from a 13″ laptop (2008 unibody Macbook) Inner view of a Sony Vaio laptop The basic components of laptops are similar in function to their desktop counterparts, but are miniaturized, adapted to mobile use, and designed for low power consumption. Because of the additional requirements, laptop components are usually of inferior performance compared to similarly priced desktop parts. Furthermore, the design bounds on power, size, and cooling of laptops limit the maximum performance of laptop parts compared to that of desktop components. The following list summarizes the differences and distinguishing features of laptop components in comparison to desktop personal computer parts:

Motherboard – Laptop motherboards are highly make and model specific, and do not conform to a desktop form factor. Unlike a desktop board that usually has several slots for expansion cards (3 to 7 are common), a board for a small, highly integrated laptop may have no expansion slots at all, with all the functionality implemented on the motherboard itself; the only expansion possible in this case is via an external port such as USB. Other boards may have one or more standard, such as ExpressCard, or

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proprietary expansion slots. Several other functions (storage controllers, networking, sound card and external ports) are implemented on the motherboard.

Central processing unit (CPU) – Laptop CPUs have advanced power-saving features and produce less heat than desktop processors, but are not as powerful. [29] There is a wide range of CPUs designed for laptops available from Intel (Pentium M, Celeron M, Intel Core and Core 2 Duo), AMD (Athlon, Turion 64, and Sempron), VIA Technologies, Transmeta and others. On the non-x86 architectures, Motorola and IBM produced the chips for the former PowerPC-based Apple laptops (iBook and PowerBook). Some laptops have removable CPUs, although support by the motherboard may be restricted to the specific models.[30] In other laptops the CPU is soldered on the motherboard and is non-replaceable.


SODIMM memory module.

Memory (RAM) – SO-DIMM memory modules that are

usually found in laptops are about half the size of desktop DIMMs. They may be accessible from the bottom of the laptop for ease of upgrading, or placed in locations not intended for user replaelectronic such as between the keyboard and the motherboard. Currently, most midrange laptops are factory equipped with 3-4 GB of DDR2 RAM, while some higher end notebooks feature up to 8 GB of DDR3 memory. Netbooks however, are commonly equipped with only 1 GB of RAM to keep manufacturing costs low.

Expansion cards – A PC Card (formerly PCMCIA) or ExpressCard bay for expansion cards is often present on laptops to allow adding and removing functionality, even when the laptop is powered on. Some subsystems (such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or a cellular modem) can be implemented as replaceable internal expansion cards, usually accessible under an access cover on the bottom of the laptop. Two popular standards for such cards are MiniPCI and its successor, the PCI Express Mini.

Power supply – Laptops are typically powered by an internal rechargeable battery that is charged using an external power supply. The power supply can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously; when the battery is fully charged, the laptop continues to run on AC power. The charger adds about 400 grams (1 lb) to the overall “tranPC weight” of the notebook.

Battery – Current laptops utilize lithium ion batteries, with more recent models using the new lithium polymer technology. These two technologies have largely replaced

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the older nickel metal-hydride batteries. Typical battery life for standard laptops is two to five hours of light-duty use, but may drop to as little as one hour when doing power-intensive tasks. A battery’s performance gradually decreases with time, leading to an eventual replaelectronic in one to three years, depending on the charging and discharging pattern. This large-capacity main battery should not be confused with the much smaller battery nearly all computers use to run the real-time clock and to store the BIOS configuration in the CMOS memory when the computer is off. Lithium-ion batteries do not have a memory effect as older batteries may have. The memory effect happens when one does not use a battery to its fullest extent, then recharges the battery. New innovations in laptops and batteries have seen new possible matchings which can provide up to a full 24 hours of continued operation, assuming average power consumption levels. An example of this is the HP EliteBook 6930p when used with its ultra-capacity battery.

Video display controller – On standard laptops the video controller is usually integrated into the chipset. This tends to limit the use of laptops for gaming and entertainment, two fields which have constantly escalating hardware demands. Higher-end laptops and desktop replaelectronics in particular often come with dedicated graphics processors on the motherboard or as an internal expansion card. These mobile graphics processors are comparable in performance to mainstream desktop graphic accelerator boards.

Display – Most modern laptops feature 12 inches (30 cm) or larger color active matrix displays based on a CCFL lamp with resolutions of 1280×800 (16:10) or 1366 x 768 (16:9) pixels and above. Many current models use screens with higher resolution than typical for desktop PCs (for example, the 1440×900 resolution of a 15″). Newer laptops come with LED based screens offering a lesser power consumption and wider viewing angles. Macbook Pro[34] can be found on 19″ widescreen desktop monitors.

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size comparison of 3.5″ and 2.5″ hard disk drives

Removable media drives – A DVD/CD reader/writer drive is typically standard. CD drives are becoming rare, while Bluis becoming more common on notebooks. Many


ultraportables and netbooks either move the removable media drive into the docking station or exclude it altogether.

Internal storage – Laptop hard disks are physically smaller—2.5 inches (64 mm) or 1.8 inches (46 mm) —compared to desktop 3.5 inches (89 mm) drives. Some newer laptops (usually ultraportables) employ more expensive, but faster, lighter and powerefficient flash memory-based SSDs instead. Currently, 250 to 500 GB sizes are common for laptop hard disks (64 to 256 GB for SSDs).

Input – A pointing stick, touchpad or both are used to control the position of the cursor on the screen, and an integrated keyboard is used for typing. An external keyboard and/or mouse may be connected using USB or PS/2 (if present).

Ports – several USB ports, an external monitor port (VGA or DVI), audio in/out, and an Ethernet network port are found on most laptops. Less common are legacy ports such as a PS/2 keyboard/mouse port, serial port or a parallel port. S-video or composite video ports are more common on consumer-oriented notebooks. HDMI may be found on some higher-end notebooks.

Docking stations
A docking station is a relatively bulky laptop accessory that contains multiple ports, expansion slots, and bays for fixed or removable drives. A laptop connects and disconnects easily to a docking station, typically through a single large proprietary connector. A port replicator is a simplified docking station that only provides connections from the laptop to input/output ports. Both docking stations and port replicators are intended to be used at a permanent working place (a desk) to offer instant connection to multiple input/output devices and to extend a laptop’s capabilities. Docking stations became a common laptop accessory in the early 1990s. The most common use was in a corporate computing environment where the company had standardized on a common network card and this same card was placed into the docking station. These stations were very large and quite expensive. As the need for additional storage and expansion slots became less critical because of the high integration inside the laptop, port replicators have gained popularity, being a cheaper, often passive device that often simply mates to the

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connectors on the back of the notebook, or connects via a standardized port such as USB or FireWire.

Some laptop components (optical drives, hard drives, memory and internal expansion cards) are relatively standardized, and it is possible to upgrade or replace them in many laptops as long as the new part is of the same type. Depending on the manufacturer and model, a laptop may range from having several standard, easily customizable and upgradeable parts to a proprietary design that cannot be reconfigured at all. In general, components other than the four categories listed above are not intended to be replaceable, and thus rarely follow a standard. In particular, motherboards, locations of ports, and design and plaelectronic of internal components are usually make and model specific. Those parts are neither interchangeable with parts from other manufacturers nor upgradeable. If broken or damaged, they must be substituted with an exact replaelectronic part. Those users uneducated in the relevant fields are those the most affected by incompatibilities, especially if they attempt to connect their laptops with incompatible hardware or power adapters. Intel, Asus, Compal, Quanta and other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.

Laptop computers are portable and can be used in many locations. Shown here is former Mexican president Vicente Fox. • Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs. Portability means that a laptop can be used in many places—not only at home and at the office, but also during commuting and flights, in coffee shops, in lecture halls and libraries, at clients’ location or at a meeting room, etc. The portability feature offers several distinct advantages:

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Getting more work done – Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC can’t be used, and at times that would otherwise be wasted. For example, an office worker managing their e-mails during an hour-long commute by train, or a student doing his/her homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures.

Immediacy – Carrying a laptop means having instant access to various information, personal and work files. Immediacy allows better collaboration between coworkers or students, as a laptop can be flipped open to present a problem or a solution anytime, anywhere.

Up-to-date information – If a person has more than one desktop PC, a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others. There are ways to resolve this problem, including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CDRs) or using synchronization software over the Internet. However, using a single laptop at both locations avoids the problem entirely, as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date.

Connectivity – A proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPA, EVDO and others) combined with a near-ubiquitous support by laptops means that a laptop can have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile. Wi-Fi networks and laptop programs are especially widespread at university campuses.

Other advantages of laptops include:

Size – Laptops are smaller than standard PCs. This is beneficial when space is at a premium, for example in small apartments and student dorms. When not in use, a laptop can be closed and put away.

Ease of Access – Most laptops have doors on the underside that allow the user to access the memory, hard drive and other components, by simply flipping the laptop to access the doors. For desktops the user must usually access the backside of the computer, which is harder if it’s in an area with little space.

Low power consumption – Laptops are several times more power-efficient than desktops. A typical laptop uses 20-90 W, compared to 100-800 W for desktops. This could be particularly beneficial for businesses (which run hundreds of personal computers, multiplying the potential savings) and homes where there is a computer running 24/7 (such as a home media server, print server, etc.)

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Quiet – Laptops are often quieter than desktops, due both to the components (quieter, slower 2.5-inch hard drives) and to less heat production leading to use of fewer and slower cooling fans.

Battery – a charged laptop can run several hours in case of a power outage and is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts. A desktop PC needs a UPS to handle short interruptions, blackouts and spikes; achieving on-battery time of more than 20–30 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS.[40]

All-in-One – designed to be portable, laptops have everything integrated in to the chassis. For desktops (excluding all-in-ones) this is divided into the desktop, keyboard, mouse, display, and optional peripherals such as speakers, and a webcam. This leads to lots of wiring. It can also lead to massive power consumption.

Extras – in comparison to low-end desktops, even low-end laptops include features such as integrated Wi-Fi, and Express Card slot, and a memory card reader.

Compared to desktop PCs, laptops have disadvantages in the following fields:

Whilst the performance of mainstream desktops and laptops is comparable, laptops are significantly more expensive than desktop PCs at the same or even lower performance level. The upper limits of performance of laptops are a little bit lower, and “bleeding-edge” features usually appear first in desktops and only then, as the underlying technology matures, are adapted to laptops. However, for Internet browsing and typical office applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input, even net book-class laptops are generally fast enough. Most higher-end laptops are sufficiently powerful for high-resolution movie playback, 3D gaming and video editing and encoding. However, laptops are disadvantaged when dealing with database, maths, engineering, financial software, etc. Some manufacturers work around this performance problem by using desktop CPUs for laptops.

Upgradeability of laptops is very limited compared to desktops, which are thoroughly standardized. In general, hard drives and memory can be upgraded easily. Optical drives and

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internal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard, but all other internal components, including the CPU, motherboard and graphics, are not intended to be upgradeable. The reasons for limited upgradeability are both technical and economic. There is no industrywide standard form factor for laptops; each major laptop manufacturer pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs. With few exceptions, laptop components can rarely be swapped between laptops of competing manufacturers, or even between laptops from the different product-lines of the same manufacturer. Some upgrades can be performed by adding external devices, either USB or in expansion card format such a PC Card: sound cards, network adapters, hard and optical drives, and numerous other peripherals are available, but these upgrades usually impair the laptop’s portability, because they add cables and boxes to the setup and often have to be disconnected and reconnected when the laptop is moved.

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Ergonomics and health
Laptop coaster preventing heating of lap and improving laptop airflow. flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices, prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury.[44] Usage of separate, external ergonomic keyboards and pointing devices is periods of recommended to prevent injury when working for long time; they can be connected to a laptop easily by USB or via a Because of their small and

docking station. Some health standards require ergonomic keyboards at workplaces. The integrated screen often causes users to hunch over for a better view, which can cause neck or spinal injuries. A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate that and to provide additional “screen estate” for more productive work. A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can raise the temperature of the scrotum when balancing the computer on one’s lap, potentially putting sperm count at risk. The study, which included roughly two dozen men aged 21 to 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can raise scrotum temperature by as much as 2.1 °C (3.78 °F). Heat from the laptop itself can raise the temperature by another 0.7 °C (1.26 °F), bringing the potential total increase to 2.8 °C (5.04 °F). However, further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects sterility in men.[45] A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk. Another solution is to obtain a cooling unit for the laptop, these units are usually USB powered and consist of a hard thin plastic case housing 1, 2 or 3 cooling fans (with the entire assembly designed to sit under the laptop in question) which results in the laptop remaining cool to the touch, and greatly reduces laptop heat buildup. Heat from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs.[46]

A clogged heatsink on a 2.5 year old laptop. Due to their portability, laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops. Components such as screen hinges, latches, power jacks and power cords deteriorate gradually due to ordinary use. A liquid spill onto the keyboard, a rather minor mishap with a desktop system, can damage the internals of a laptop and result in a costly repair. One

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study found that a laptop is 3 times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop. Original external components are expensive, and usually proprietary and non-interchangeble; other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replaelectronic may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician. Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separate from larger more expensive components. The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel may exceed the value of a used laptop. Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail due to eventual clogging by accumulated airborne dust and debris. Most laptops do not have any sort of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually runs hotter and louder as the years pass. Eventually the laptop starts to overheat even at idle load levels. This dust is usually stuck inside where casual cleaning and vacuuming cannot remove it. Instead, a complete disassembly is needed to clean the laptop. Battery life of laptops is limited; the capacity drops with time, necessitating an eventual replaelectronic after a few years. The battery is often easily replaceable, and one may replace it on purpose with a higher end model to achieve better battery life.

Being valuable, common and portable, laptops are prized targets for theft. The cost of the stolen business or personal data and of the resulting problems (identity theft, credit card fraud, breach of privacy laws) can be many times the value of the stolen laptop itself. Therefore, both physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are of the highest importance. Most laptops have a Kensington security slot which is used to tether the computer to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock. In addition to this, modern operating systems and third-party software offer disk encryption functionality that renders the data on the laptop’s hard drive unreadable without a key or a passphrase. Some laptops also now have additional security elements added by the consumer, including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.

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Major brands and manufacturers
There is a multitude of laptop brands and manufacturers; several major brands, offering notebooks in various classes, are listed in the box to the right. The major brands usually offer good service and support, including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that will remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced. Capitalizing on service, support and brand image, laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs. Some brands are specializing in a particular class of laptops, such as gaming laptops (Alienware), netbooks (EeePC) and laptops for children (OLPC). Many brands, including the major ones, do not design and do not manufacture their laptops. Instead, a small number of Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) design new models of laptops, and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup. In 2006, 7 major ODMs manufactured 7 of every 10 laptops in the world, with the largest one (Quanta Computer) having 30% world market share. Therefore, there often are identical models available both from a major label and from a low-profile ODM inhouse brand.

Battery-powered portable computers had just 2% worldwide market share in 1986. But today, laptops are becoming increasingly popular, both for business and personal use. In 2008 it is estimated that 145.9 million notebooks were sold, and in 2009 the number will grow to 177.7 million. The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops, with 38.6 million units versus 38.5 million units. For Microsoft Windows systems, the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost netbooks, drawing 689 US$ at U.S. retail in August 2008. In 2009, ASP had further fallen to 602 US$ by January and to 560 US$ in February. While Windows machines fell 129 US$ in these seven months, Mac laptop ASP declined just 12 US$ from 1524 US$ to 1512 US$. Since 2006, the world’s top selling Laptop brand is HP, which now has 21.2% marketshare

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List of laptop brands and manufacturers
Major brands
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Acer – TravelMate, Extensa, Ferrari, Aspire Apple – MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro ASUS – Asus Eee, Lamborghini Compaq – Evo, Armada, LTE, Presario Dell – Inspiron, Latitude, Precision, Studio, Vostro, XPS, Studio XPS Fujitsu – LifeBook, Stylistic G7 Systems – Genius Book, Hi-Fi PC, G7 Studio, G7 Extreme [1] Gateway Hewlett-Packard – HP Pavilion, HP Omnibook, HP Compaq Notebooks Lenovo – ThinkPad, IdeaPad, 3000 series Panasonic – Toughbook, Satellite, Let’s Note (available in Japan only) [2] Sony – VAIO Toshiba – Dynabook, Portege, Tecra, Satellite, Qosmio, Libretto

Gaming brands
• • • • • • • • • •

Gateway – FX Series Abbcore Technologies – Velocita Alienware – Area 51m, Alienware Sentia and Aurora m, M15x, M17x AVADirect CyberPower Dell XPS – M1730 (laptop), and M1530 (laptop) Falcon Northwest – DR6800, TL2 iBuyPower Vigor Gaming – Atlantis, Augustus, Artorius, and Aegis WidowPC

Laptops for children
• • • •

Digital Textbook Elonex ONE InkMedia Intel – Classmate PC

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• • •

OLPC XO-1 – $100 Laptop or Children’s Machine Tianhua GX-1C Eee PC

Other brands
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Abbcore Technologies – Desktop, Notebook, Server, Media Center Acorn Computers – Deskbook, Desknote and Solonote Averatec BenQ Everex – CloudBook, gBook Founder Technology Fujitsu Siemens – Lifebook, FMV – BiBlo, Amilo, Esprimo Mobile G7 – Genius Book Gericom Gigabyte Technology Gliese IT Hasee HCL HTC – HTC Shift Hypersonic Hyundai Jetta (electronics company) – Jetbook LG – Xnote LinuxCertified – Linux laptop MDG Computers Medion Micro-Star International (MSI) – Megabook, Wind NEC – VERSA, LaVie Neo – Empiriva, Endura Noahpad OCZ OQO Orca Packard Bell – EasyNote

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• • • • • • • • • • • • •

PC Club Philips – X200 Pioneer Computers Positivo Informática Prestigio Sager Notebook Computers Seanix – Seanix Sharp – Mebius Siragon, C.A. System76 TabletKiosk Tongfang Turbo-X (Greece only)

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Company Profile & Their Products
HCL Technologies is a leading global IT services company, working with clients in the areas that impact and redefine the core of their businesses. Since its inception into the global landscape after its IPO in 1999, HCL focuses on ‘transformational outsourcing’, underlined by innovation and value creation, and offers integrated portfolio of services including software-led IT solutions, remote infrastructure management, engineering and R&D services and BPO. HCL leverages its extensive global offshore infrastructure and network of offices in 26 countries to provide holistic, multi-service delivery in key industry verticals including Financial Services, Manufacturing, Consumer Services, Public Services and Healthcare. HCL takes pride in its philosophy of ‘Employee First’ which empowers our 58,129 transformers to create a real value for the customers. HCL Technologies, along with its subsidiaries, had consolidated revenues of US$ 2.6 billion (Rs. 12,048 crores), as on 31st March 2010 (on LTM basis). HCL is a $5 billion leading global Technology and IT Enterprise that comprises two companies listed in India – HCL Technologies & HCL Infosystems. Founded in 1976, HCL is one of India’s original IT garage start-ups, a pioneer of modern computing, and a global transformational enterprise today. Its range of offerings spans Product Engineering, Custom & Package Applications, BPO, IT Infrastructure Services, IT Hardware, Systems Integration, and distribution of ICT products across a wide range of focused industry verticals. The HCL team comprises over 62,000 professionals of diverse nationalities, who operate from 26 countries including over 500 points of presence in India. HCL has global partnerships with several leading Fortune 1000 firms, including leading IT and Technology firms. For more information, please visit

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It’s Products (Laptop’s) HCL ME LAPTOP AE1V0555-I
Rs.43990 Our Price: Rs.39035 You Save: Rs.4955 (11%) Product Code: AE1V0555-I + TataSky Digicom + Mtv Bag 2 Years additional warranty: Add:Rs.3500 Features: Genuine Windows 7 Home Premium Intel® Core™ i3 330 Processor Intel® HM55 chipset based , 2 Inbuilt Antenna Core i3 330(2.13GHz,3M Cache) 4GB DDR3 RAM 500 GB SATA Hard Disk Drive Slim DVD DL Super Multi Drive

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HCL laptops powered by Intel® Pentium®
Price: Our You Bag 2 Years additional warranty: Features: Genuine Windows 7 Home Basic Intel® Pentium® Dual Core Processor T4400 PDC T4400 (2.2 GHz, 800 MHz, 1 MB) Intel® GL40 chipset based ,2 Inbuilt Antenna 2GB DDR2 RAM 320 GB SATA Hard Disk Drive Slim DVD DL Super Multi Drive Rs.33900 Price: Rs.29147 Save: Rs.4753 (14%) Product Code: AX0K4401 + TataSky Digicom + Mtv

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Price: Rs. Our You Product 2 Years
Features: Free Dos Intel® Pentium Dual Core Processor T4400 Intel® GM45 chipset based , 2 Inbuilt Antenna PDC T4400 (2.2 GHz, 800 MHz, 1 MB) 3 GB DDR2 RAM 320 GB SATA Hard Disk Drive Slim DVD DL Super Multi Drive with DVD RAM Support

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GHz, 800 MHz, 1 MB) nVIDIA nForce MCP79MVL Chipset

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HCL ME Laptop P3898
Price: Rs. 31700 Our Price: Rs.30280 You Save: Rs.1420 (4%) Product Code: AX0P3898 + TataSky Digicom + Mtv Bag 2 Years additional warranty:

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Price: Product 2 Years Rs.24990 Code: AE1V0563-I + TataSky Digicom + Mtv Bag additional warranty

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HP is a technology company that operates in more than 170 countries around the world. We explore how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities, aspirations and dreams. We apply new thinking and ideas to create more simple, valuable and trusted experiences with technology, continuously improving the way our customers live and work. No other company offers as complete a technology product portfolio as HP. We provide infrastructure and business offerings that span from handheld devices to some of the world’s most powerful supercomputer installations. We offer consumers a wide range of products and services from digital photography to digital entertainment and from computing to home printing. This comprehensive portfolio helps us match the right products, services and solutions to our customers’ specific needs.
F • HP was founded in 1939. • Corporate headquarters are in Palo Alto, Calif. • Mark Hurd is president and CEO. • HP is the world’s largest IT company, with revenue totaling $114.6 billion for fiscal 2009. • HP’s 2009 Fortune 500 ranking: No. 9. Technology leadership HP’s three business groups drive industry leadership in core technology areas: • The Personal Systems Group: business and consumer PCs, mobile computing devices and workstations • The Imaging and Printing Group: inkjet, LaserJet and commercial printing, printing supplies • Enterprise Business: business products including storage and servers, enterprise services and software

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It’s Products
For Home & Home Office » HP Home Laptop PCs Featuring the perfect Notebook PCs with powerful performance and attractive designs that complement your personality » Compaq Home Laptop PCs The right notebook PC choice for all of what you need and nothing you don’t.

For business
Business Notebook (Laptop) and Tablet PC Versatile mobile solutions for a demanding environment. Browse and choose a notebook best suited to your business needs

Options and accessories for HP notebooks
For Home & Home Office » For Compaq Presario and HP Pavilion notebook computers » Compaq Options & Accessories

For business
» For HP Compaq business notebooks and Tablet PCs

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ACER is an incorporated not-for-profit organization founded in 1987. Members are leaders in education, media and business who initiate and facilitate development, production and promotion of Canadian materials to meet the needs of to-day’s learners. Mission Statement: “Measuring and tracking the effects of climate change demands accurate reporting. ACER believes in a grassroots approach – utilizing citizen scientists to conduct such measurement in a scientifically sound manner. ACER develops, delivers and supports programs and resources that educate and enable citizen scientists to undertake accurate monitoring and reporting, thus contributing to awareness and understanding of climate change which contributes to an ecologically sustainable future for the planet.” ACER believes that sound ecological action depends on monitoring and responding at the community level. Our current focus is ecological monitoring to track environmental change. ACER’s dynamic volunteer network of community groups, educators and scientists teaches pro-active approaches to monitoring and restoring ecosystem health through hands-on programs. Our community partners gather data that is fed into national biodiversity databases to support environmental education and decision making at community, regional, national and international levels. By supporting ACER you become part of this important effort. ACER:
• •

Evaluates Ideas Seeks Funding

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Produces and Promotes Materials

Ideas are evaluated, funding sought, materials produced and promoted for use by educators and other interested groups or agencies. ACER acts as a bridge between the professional educator and the materials needed to promote lifelong learning. ACER funding comes from membership and donations. All project funds are monitored by an advisory board. Reasonable fees and expenses are paid to those working on projects. Members donate many hours of their time to assist in various projects.

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It’s Product’s (Acer)

Aspire 5542
The 15.6″Aspire 5542 features the latest AMD mobile processor technology to deliver exceptional multitasking performance, superb media experiences, and enhanced mobility. Full HD 1080p playback is made possible via the HD widescreen, superior graphics solutions, and Blupremium radiance to your multimedia! Benefits
• •

ray Disc™ technology. Loaded with a host of components, the Aspire 5542 brings next-generation

HD brilliance See, share and create richer content for the ultimate HD experience. Gaming and entertainment reach new levels of realism thanks to advanced graphics with High Dynamic-Range (HDR) technology, enabling lifelike lighting and texture for truly immersive experiences. With its 15.6″ HD widescreen, the Aspire 5542 lets you enjoy the movie theater experience anywhere. To complete the cinematic feast, relish fantastic acoustics via the 3rd Generation Dolby Home Theater®, featuring True5.1channel surround sound output. And, use the HDMI™ interface for convenient connectivity to entertainment systems, and get dazzling sights and sounds with a single-cable link.

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Aspire 5738Z
Movies come to life in true cinematic form on the 15.6″ Aspire 5738Z. A competent processor, efficient graphics engine and premium audio technologies work behind the scenes to deliver marvelous entertainment. The Aspire 5738Z comes in the classy Gemstone design, so you can enjoy a theater experience anywhere, anytime and in style Benefits

Blockbuster performance

Your portable theater features a high-def Acer CrystalBrite™ LCD with 16:9 aspect ratio -perfect for viewing content created for the widescreen. The quick response time presents moving images seamlessly, immersing you in heart-pumping action scenes. 3rd Generation Dolby®-optimized surround sound system booms energizing audio, while the optional Bluray Disc™ drive spins high-def music and movie effects with true-to-master precision. A large hard drive offers plenty of storage for your downloads and media files, while DDR3 memory speeds up multitasking and a 5-in-1 card reader makes file sharing easy. Technical Specification
• •

Genuine Windows Vista® Home Premium Intel® Pentium® dual-core mobile processor T4200 with up to 1 MB L2 Cache, supporting Intel® 64 architecture

Processor & Chipset

Memory HDD Storage

• • •

Mobile Intel® GL40 Express Chipset 2 GB RAM; Upgradeable to 4 GB 320 GB HDD S-ATA hard disc drive 8X DVD-Super Multi double-layer drive

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5-in-1 card reader, supporting Secure Digital™ (SD) Card, MultiMediaCard (MMC), Memory Stick® (MS), Memory Stick PRO™ (MS PRO), xD-Picture Card™ (xD) 15.6″ HD 1366 x 768 pixel resolution, high-brightness (220-nit) Acer CineCrystal™ LED-backlit TFT LCD, supporting simultaneous multi-window viewing via Acer GridVista™


• • • • •

16.7 million colours 16:9 aspect ratio 8 ms high-def response time 60% color gamut Mobile Intel® GL40 Express Chipset with integrated 3D graphics, featuring Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator 4500M (Intel® GMA 4500M) with up to 1759 MB of Intel® Dynamic Video Memory Technology 5.0 (64 MB of dedicated video memory, up to 1695 MB of shared system memory*), supporting Microsoft® DirectX® 10 or (* depending on size of system memory)


• • •

HDMI™ (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) with HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) support Dolby®-optimized surround sound system with two built-in stereo speakers Optimized 3rd Generation Dolby Home Theater® audio enhanelectronic, featuring Dolby® Digital Live, Dolby Pro Logic® IIx, Dolby® Headphone, Dolby® Natural Bass, Dolby® Sound Space Expander, Dolby® Inverse Filtering, Dolby® High Frequency Enhancer technologies

• • • •

True5.1-channel surround sound output High-definition audio support S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) support for digital speakers MS-Sound compatible


Acer Video Conference, featuring integrated Acer Crystal Eye

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webcam supporting enhanced Acer PrimaLite™ technology

Acer InviLink™ 802.11b/g Wi-Fi CERTIFIED® network connection, supporting Acer SignalUp™ wireless technology 56K ITU V.92 modem with PTT approval; Wake-on-Ring ready Gigabit Ethernet; Wake-on-LAN ready Bluetooth® 2.0+EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) 5-in-1 card reader (SD™, MMC, MS, MS PRO, xD) 4x USB 2.0 ports HDMI™ port with HDCP support 1x external display (VGA) port 1x Headphone/speaker/line-out jack with S/PDIF support 1x Microphone-in jack 1x Line-in jack 1x Modem (RJ-11) port 1x Ethernet (RJ-45) port 1x DC-in jack for AC adapter Slot for Kensington lock BIOS user, supervisor, HDD passwords ACPI 3.0 CPU power management standard: supports Standby and Hibernation power-saving modes 48.8 W (6-cell) Li-ion battery pack 65W AC adapter ENERGY STAR® 5.0 103-/104-/107-key keyboard, with inverted “T” cursor layout, 1.8 mm (minimum) key travel Multi-gesture touchpad pointing device, supporting: • Circular-motion scrolling • Pinch-action zoom • Page flip

• • • • • • • •

I/O Interface

• • • • • •

• •

Power Supply & Battery

• • •

Keyboard & Special Controls

• •

Acer Bio-Protection fingerprint reader 11 function keys, four cursor keys, two Windows® keys, hotkey

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controls, independent standard numeric keypad, international language support
• •

Acer PowerSmart key Easy-launch keys: Acer Backup, WLAN, volume up/down, touchpad

Weight & Dimensions

• • • • • •

Media keys (printed on keyboard): play/pause, stop, previous, next 383 (W) x 250 (D) x 26/37 (H) mm (15.1 x 9.9 x 1.03/1.5 inches) 2.8 kg (6.16 lbs.) with 6-cell battery pack Temperature & humidity test Free drop test Acoustics test Weight and Pressure tests Spillage test Shock and Vibration tests Electrostatic discharge immunity test MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) test Hinge life test Keyboard-switch life test Acer Arcade™ Deluxe featuring Cinema, Album, Music, Acer HomeMedia, Online Media Acer Backup Manager Acer eRecovery Manager Acer PowerSmart Manager Acer Bio-Protection Acer Crystal Eye Acer GridVista™ Acer Launch Manager Acer GameZone Acer Game Console McAfee Internet Security Suite 60-day trial version Adobe Flash® Player Adobe® Reader®

Quality & Reliability Tests

• • • • • •


• • • • • • • • • • • •

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• • • • •

Google Toolbar™ Google Desktop™ NTI Media Maker™ Microsoft® Works with Office Home and Student 2007 Trial (Service Pack 1) Memory expansion modules Additional battery Additional AC adapter One-year International Travellers Warranty (ITW)

Options Warranty

• • •

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Electronics is one of the leading companies in the field of electronics with a global presence in many countries. . Before briefing, I have divided the introduction part into three main sub parts.

The LG

Electronics Life’s Good signature consists of the LG logo,

seal, and the slogan, “Life’s Good” set in Charlotte sans typeface curved around the LG symbol. The curving of the slogan reinforces LG’s personality and uniqueness. The consistent usage of this signature clearly establishes the unique identity of the company and unifies every division and product from LG Electronics across the globe. 1. LG Global 2. LG India 3. LG Pune History of company The company was originally established in 1958 as Gold Star, producing radios, TVs, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners. The LG Group was a merger of two Korean companies, Lucky and Gold Star, from which the abbreviation of LG was derived. The current “Life’s good” slogan is a backronym. Before the corporate Name change to LG, household products were sold under the Brand name of Lucky, while electronic products were sold under the brand name of Gold Star. The Gold Star brand is still perceived as a discount brand. In 1995, Gold Star was renamed LG Electronics, and acquired Zenith Electronics of the United States. Global Operation

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LG Electronics is playing an active role in the world market with its assertive global business policy. As a result, LG Electronics controls 110 local subsidiaries in the world with around 82,000 executive and employees. LG Group
1. LG.Philips LCD 2. LG Chemical 3. LG Telecom 4. LG Powercom 5. LG Twins 6. LG Dacom

Business areas and main products Mobile communications (a) CDMA Handsets, (b) GSM Handsets, (c) 3G Handsets, (d) Cellular Phones Digital appliance
a) Air Conditioners, b) Refrigerators, c) Microwave Ovens, d) Washing Machines, e) Vacuum Cleaners,

f) Home Net,
g) Compressors for Air Conditioners and Refrigerators

Digital display

Plasma TVs,

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LCD TVs, Micro Display Panel TVs, Monitors, PDP Modules, OLED Panels, USB Memory, Flat Panel Computer Monitors

c) d) e) f) g)

Digital media
a) Home Theater Systems, b) DVD Recorders,

c) Super Multi DVD Rewriters, d) CD±RW, e) Notebook PCs, f) Desktop PCs, g) PDAs, h) PDA Phones,
i) MP3 Players,

j) New Karaoke Systems, k) Car Infotainment VISION Global Top 3 by 2010 Global Top 3 Electronic/Telecommunication company GROWTH STRATEGY “Fast innovation, Fast growth” CORE COMPETENCY

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“Product leadership, Market leadership, People leadership”

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CORPORATE CULTURE No excuse, “we” not “I”, Fun workplace SLOGAN “Life’s Good” represents LG’s determination to provide delightfully smart products that will make your life good. THE SYMBOL The symbol of LG is the face of future. The letter “L” and “G” in a circle symbolizes world, future, youth, humanity & technology.LG philosophy is based on humanity. It also represents LG’s efforts to keep close relationship with our customers around the world. The symbol consists of two elements. 1. The logo in LG gray 2. The stylized image of human face in the unique LG red color. Red color represents our friendliness and gives a strong impression of LG’s commitment to deliver the best. The circle symbolizes The Globe. The stylized image of a smiling face in the symbol conveys “Friendliness and Approachability”. The one eye on the symbol represents “Goal-oriented, Focused & Confident”. The slogan of LG is “Life’s Good”. It expresses “Brand’s Value, Promises, Benefits, Personality.

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laptop computer is a convenient portable computer that has gained wide popularity with people who travel extensively, study in coffee shops, and particularly for those who enjoy the space saving design. Laptops have come a long way with optional features such as integrated web camera for video chatting. Laptops with wi-fi technology for connecting to a wireless network

or an internet hot spot and mobile broadband to connect anywhere are very convenient. Laptops with a bluetooth reader, finger print scanner, or a space saving slot loaded disc drive make technology fun. Ultra convenience at an extremely convenient price. Experience Dell laptops and notebook computers and you’ll wonder how you ever survived without the convenience of a laptop computer. Notebook computers have desktop power without the desktop size and portable convenience that sits in your lap. Dell laptops and notebook computers have gained worldwide popularity among travelers, students, and business professionals. Dell laptops and notebook computers have become the epitome of mobile convenience… with every generation, technologies and amenities increase while prices drop. Make technology fun with integrated web cameras for video chatting; Wi-Fi technology to connect anywhere, at any time; Bluetooth readers; finger print scanner; and slot loaded CD/DVD disc drives. Among Dell’s large selection of laptops, notebook, desktop and netbooks computers, there’s a perfect size, color, weight, and speed for you, your personality and needs. Get yours today online or contact us and we’ll help you configure your dream Dell laptop or notebook computer!

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IBM Corporate Citizenship: Helping to build a developing smarter planet The primary focus of our corporate citizenship activities is on initiatives to address specific societal

issues, such as the environment, community economic development, education, health, literacy, language and culture. We employ IBM’s most valuable resources, our technology and talent, in order to create innovative programs in these areas to assist communities around the world. For example, our Corporate Service Corps program annually deploys teams of selected high potential employees to emerging regions to work with government, nonprofit and non-governmental organizations on critical local projects. Teams have completed projects in Ghana, Romania, Tanzania, the Philippines and Vietnam around water quality, disaster preparedness and project management. Our World Community Grid initiative utilizes grid computing technology to harness the tremendous power of idle computers to perform specific computations related to critical research around complex biological, environmental and health-related issues. The current projects include Help Fight Childhood Cancer, Clean Energy, and Nutritious Rice for the World, [email protected], Help Conquer Cancer, [email protected], and a genomics initiative and research on Dengue Fever. Another example of our citizenship activities is our employee volunteer initiative, entitled On Demand Community. Since its inception in 2003, over 145,000 employees and retirees have registered and performed almost 10 million hours of volunteer service around the world. This program equips our employee and retiree volunteers with a distinct set of on demand tools based on the successful technology solutions created exclusively by IBM for schools and community agencies. These Web-based tools provide them with a myriad choice of meaningful volunteer opportunities, resources and specific activities designed to help make them more effective volunteers and to offer valuable assistance to schools and not-for-profit organizations.

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To learn more about our work in the context of IBM’s broader corporate responsibility efforts, please visit Innovations in Corporate Responsibility. Program overviews

Education IBM realizes the power and importance of education. Through major initiatives such as Reinventing Education, the IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program, and IBM MentorPlace, IBM is working to raise student achievement and enhance academic productivity to support thriving communities around the globe.

Adult training and workforce development Technology can be a powerful tool in education and job training programs for adults, helping broaden opportunities and strengthening programs available to adults in need of new skills and employment. It also can help simulate real job conditions, make the acquisition of education and skills more effective and help people get the network of support they need to obtain and retain employment.

Arts and culture IBM’s support of the arts stems from our strong tradition of bettering our communities. We feel a deep sense of responsibility both inside and outside the company — a focused determination to enhance the communities in which we do business and in which our customers and employees live. By joining with libraries, museums, and other cultural institutions in exciting partnerships that leverage IBM expertise, we also demonstrate the critical role technology plays in enhancing the arts.

Helping communities in need Wherever IBM does business around the globe, we form connections to communities and support a range of civic and nonprofit activities that help

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those in need. In all our efforts, we demonstrate how technology can enrich and expand access to services and assistance.

Environment Through targeted efforts that combine technology and innovation, IBM is committed to environmental leadership that will help protect our planet for this and future generations.

Employee giving
IBM teams with employees to support organizations and causes in the communities where they live and work. Community-level grant making and extensive volunteer programs help our employees become personally involved in community projects

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Chapter- 02 Conceptual Frame Work
Consumer is a broad label that refers to any individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy

Consumer Decision Making Processes
Traditionally, consumer researchers have approached decision making process from a rational perspective. This dominant school of thought views consumers as being cognitive (i.e., problem-solving) and, to some but a lesser degree, emotional.i Such a view is reflected in the stage model of a typical buying process (often called the consumer information processing model) depicted in.
Problem Recognition

Information Search

Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives

Decision Implementation

Post-purchase Evaluation

Figure The Consumer Information Processing Model
Source: Adopted from Kotler (1997), Schiffman and Kanuk (1997), and Solomon (1996)

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In this model, the consumer passes through five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation and selection of alternatives, decision implementation, and post-purchase evaluation. Problem Recognition In this information processing model, the consumer buying process begins when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. For example, Doug may realize that his best suit doesn’t look contemporary any more. Or, Kathleen may recognize that her personal computer is not performing as well as she thought it should. These are the kinds of problem that we as consumers encounter all the time. When we found out a difference between the actual state and a desired state, a problem is recognized. When we find a problem, we usually try to solve the problem. We, in other words, recognize the need to solve the problem. But how? Information Search When a consumer discovers a problem, he/she is likely to search for more information. Kathleen may simply pay more attention to product information of a personal computer. She becomes more attentive to computer ads, computers purchased by her friends, and peer conversations about computers. Or, she may more actively seek information by visiting stores, talking to friends, or reading computer magazines, among others. Through gathering information, the consumer learns more about some brands that compete in the market and their features and characteristics. Theoretically, there is a total set of brands available to Kathleen, but she will become aware of only a subset of the brands (awareness set) in the market. Some of these brands may satisfy her initial buying criteria, such as price and processing speed (consideration set). As Kathleen proceeds to more information search, only a few will remain as strong candidates (choice set). Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives How does the consumer process competitive brand information and evaluate the value of the brands? Unfortunately there is no single, simple evaluation process applied by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situations. One dominant view, however, is to see the evaluation process as being cognitively driven and rational. Under this view, a consumer is trying to solve the problem and

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ultimately satisfying his/her need. In other words, he/she will look for problemsolving benefits from the product. The consumer, then, looks for products with a certain set of attributes that deliver the benefits. Thus, the consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with different levels of ability of delivering the problem solving benefits to satisfy his/her need. The distinctions among the need, benefits, and attributes are very important. One useful way to organize the relationships among the three is a hierarchical one (Figure 2). Although simplified, Figure 2 is an example of how a bundle of attributes (i.e., a product or, more specifically, personal computer) relates to the benefits and underlying needs of Kathleen.
Helps Me Survive Babson MBA Pogram

Underlying Needs



Doesn’t Break down


Computational Horse Power

Warranty Attributes Size Brand Reputation Software Bundle CPU Speed


Hard Drive Size GlobeNet Ready

Hierarchical View of Needs, Benefits, and Attributes

From this figure and the preceding discussion, you might recognize that the product attributes are relevant and important only to the extent that they lead to a certain set of benefits. Likewise, benefits are meaningful only if they can address the problem and be instrumental to satisfy the underlying need. As the underlying need is often personal, consumers differ as to their beliefs about what product benefits and attributes are more (or less) important and relevant in satisfying their needs. Based on their personal judgment on importance of benefits and attributes, consumers develop a set of attitudes (or preferences) toward the various brands. One may express his/her preferences of the brands in terms of ranking, probability of choice, and so forth.

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Decision Implementation To actually implement the purchase decision, however, a consumer needs to select both specific items (brands) and specific outlets (where to buy) to resolve the problems. There are, in fact, three ways these decisions can be made: 1) simultaneously; 2) item first, outlet second; or 3) outlet first, item second.ii In many situations, consumers engage in a simultaneous selection process of storesiii and brands. For example, in our Kathleen’s personal computer case, she may select a set of brands based on both the product’s technical features (attributes) and availability of brands in the computer stores and mail-order catalogs she knows well. It is also possible, that she decides where to buy (e.g., CompUSA in her neighborhood) and then chooses one or two brands the store carries. Once the brand and outlet have been decided, the consumer moves on to the transaction (“buying”). Post-purchase Evaluation Post-purchase evaluation processes are directly influenced by the type of preceding decision-making process. Directly relevant here is the level of purchase involvement of the consumer. Purchase involvement is often referred to as “the level of concern for or interest in the purchase”

situation, and it determines how extensively the

consumer searches information in making a purchase decision.v Although purchase involvement is viewed as a continuum (from low to high), it is useful to consider two extreme cases here. Suppose one buys a certain brand of product (e.g., Diet Pepsi) as a matter of habit (habitual purchase). For him/her, buying a cola drink is a very low purchase involvement situation, and he/she is not likely to search and evaluate product information extensively. In such a case, the consumer would simply purchase, consume and/or dispose of the product with very limited post-purchase evaluation, and generally maintain a high level of repeat purchase motivation.
Purchase Product Use Disposition Simple Evaluation Repeat Purchase Motivation

Low Involvement Purchase
Source: Hawkins, Best, and Coney (1983)

However, if the purchase involvement is high and the consumer is involved in extensive purchase decision making (e.g., personal computer), he/she is more likely to be involved in more elaborate post-purchase evaluation – often by questioning the rightness of the decision: “Did I make the right choice? Should I have gone with other

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brand?” This is a common reaction after making a difficult, complex, relatively permanent decision. This type of doubt and anxiety is referred to as post-purchase cognitive dissonance.
Post-purchase Dissonance Elaborate Evaluation Dissatisfaction Repeat Purchase Motivation


Product Use


Elaborate Post-purchase Evaluation
Source: Adopted from Hawkins, Best, and Coney (1983)

According to the research, the likelihood of experiencing this kind of dissonance and the magnitude of it is a function of:vi • The degree of commitment or irrevocability of the decision, • The importance of the decision to the consumer, • The difficulty of choosing among the alternatives, and • The individual’s tendency to experience anxiety. Because dissonance is uncomfortable, the consumer may use one or more of the following approaches to reduce it: • Increase the desirability of the brand purchased. • Decrease the desirability of rejected alternatives. • Decrease the importance of the purchase decision. • Reject the negative data on the brand purchased.

What is Consumer Buying Behavior?
Introduction to Consumer Behaviors The study of Consumer Behaviors is quite complex, because of many variables involved and their tendency to interact with & influence each other. These variables are divided into three major sections that have been identified as the most important general influences on Consumer Behaviors. Imagine three concentric circles, one at the outer most, one in the middle & one at the inner most, and they represent the following:

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External Environmental Variables Influencing Behaviour : These are the factors controlled by external environments like the following form the basis of external influences over the mind of a customer (outer circle) : 1. Culture, and Sub-culture, 2. Social Class, and Social Group, 3. Family, and Inter-Personal Influences, 4. Other Influences (which are not categorized by any of the above six, like geographical, political, economical, religious environment, etc.). Individual Determinants of Behavior: Major individual determinants of Consumer Behavior are portrayed in the middle ring. These are the human mind and its attributes. These variables are personal in nature and they are influenced by the above set of external factors and in turn influence the way consumers proceed thro’ a decision making process regarding products & services. They are: 1. Personality & Self-concept, 2. Motivation & Involvement, 3. Perception & Information Processing, 4. Learning & Memory, 5. Attitudes. The Consumer Decision Making Process: The buying decision comes as a product of the complex interaction of the external factors and the personal attributes. The inner most circle denotes the consumer decision making process regarding products & services, whose major steps are : 1. Problem Recognition,

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2. Information Search, 3. Evaluation of Application, 4. Purchase Decision, 5. Post-Purchase Behavior. Marketers are frequently uncertain about the variables that are at play influencing & affecting consumers. Sometimes this occurs because they don’t clearly understand the extent of variables that might be having an influence. The details of all external, internal, environmental, economical etc. are discussed above. Sometimes some variables are not directly observable. Other times variables are known to the marketers but their exact nature & relative strength of influence is not apparent. In these circumstances, it is useful to understand the above mentioned concepts and how the consumers behave, so that their decision making process can be predicted to a reasonable extent. The human mind being as complex as it is, the understanding of the buying behavior of the consumers becomes a continuous activity of application of various theories & concepts by the marketers.

The Consumer Behaviors Theory
An understanding of how the theory of consumer behavior and its application tools evolved over the years will enable us to appreciate the validity of the theory and give us a guidance in its practical application. Consumer behavior, like all human behavior is very complex. But the consumer behavior theory, like all theories is a simplified & abstract representation of reality. The more simplified picture of consumers provided by the theory helps us enormously to understand the consumers. It not only helps us to think about consumers, but also provides us with a language to talk about them. This language is very useful, because to be effective in an organization – for profit or non-profit – one has to persuade others to accept his ideas. And in fact, lack of this language has been one of the greatest drawback of the modern marketers.

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Market Research or Marketing Research (MR) has been developing since “MARKETING” which brings together all customer elements, grew out of the concept of “SALES” in the early fifties. The theory of consumer behavior draws heavily upon the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud, particularly with respect to the emotional, psychological, mental, subjective or non-utilitarian aspects of buying decision or behavior of a consumer. The theory represents the hidden order in this very complex activity, which we call consumer behavior. On the surface, this highly complex & varied display of behavior by consumers seems essentially unexplained. But slowly as the theory develops. Now, what is the magic stuff called consumer behavior theory that does all these wonderful things. It’s not just a theory, as explained earlier, but more than that. It helps us to make better marketing decisions for profit & non-profit organizations. Thus we can examine the characteristics of a theory that enables us to do so. Researchers G Zaltman and M Wallendorf have came out with the most important attributes of a good & sound theory, after very close and careful thought.

These are the following :
A theory which does both: explains how consumers buy & predicts what consumers will buy. It unifies previously unrelated areas of knowledge, for example, it relates to information that consumers get from advertising so as to decide what brands they buy. The theory is simple. If not, it can be so complex that we can’t understand well enough to apply it to our practical problems. It is testable so that we can verify whether the theory is valid and therefore dependable. Implied in the previous characteristic, it is supported by the facts. This means, to lay the theory up against data describing how consumers buy in the market and thereby determine if the facts confirm the theory. If they don’t, then either the theory should be modified till the facts do verify it or abandon the theory.

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The theory is general, which means that it can be applied to a wide range of products & services. If it is not, then it won’t be very useful. It has heuristic value, meaning that it poses new questions for us that had not been previously asked. While trying to answer these questions, new knowledge is created and that becomes the part of the theory. It is internally consistent. This means that the theory is internally free from logical in congruencies or else the prediction will be doubtful & flawed. Lack of this quality will make the theory a dangerous tool. It is original. If not, it adds little to the existing knowledge. It is plausible. If not, it can’t be seen by others as making any sense, and hence, they will not likely to accept the theory and so it won’t be useful.

Consumer Behavior (or Buyer Behavior) is broadly defined by various scholars & researchers as: It’s the behavior displayed by the consumers during the acquisition, consumption and disposition of products, services, time and ideas by decision making units. It is the body of knowledge which studies various aspects of purchase and consumption of products and services by individuals with various social and psychological variables at play. The behavior that the consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires. The activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions.

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The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines consumer behavior as “The dynamic interaction of cognition, behavior & environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspect of their lives. The study of consumer behavior involves search, evaluation, purchase, consumption and post purchase behavior of the consumers and includes the disposal of purchased products keeping environment and personal characteristics in mind.

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Definition of Buying Behavior:
Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Need to understand: • • • Why consumers make the purchases that they make? What factors influence consumer purchases? The changing factors in our society.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for: Buyer’s reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firm’s success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.

Factors influencing consumer behavior
Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by or there are four factors. 01. Cultural Factor 02. Social Factor 03. Personal Factor 04. Psychological Factor.

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01. Cultural Factor:• Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii) Social Class Culture:The set of basic values perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. Sub Culture :A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Each culture contains smaller sub cultures a group of people with shared value system based on common life experiences and situations. Sub culture includes nationalities, religions, racial group and geographic regions. Many sub culture make up important market segments and marketers often design products. Social Class:- A Almost every society has some form of social structure; social classes are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests and behavior.

Social Factors:-

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A consumer’s behavior also is influenced by social factors, such as the (i) Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status Groups :Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. A person’s behaviors are influenced by many small groups. Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called membership groups. Some are primary groups includes family, friends, neighbors and coworkers. Some are secondary groups, which are more formal and have less regular interaction. These include organizations like religious groups, professional association and trade unions.

Family:Family members can strongly influence buyer behavior. The family is the most important consumer buying organization society and it has been researched extensively. Marketers are interested in the roles, and influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products and services. Roles and Status :A person belongs to many groups, family, clubs, and organizations. The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status. For example. M & “X” plays the role of father, in his family he plays the role of husband, in his company, he plays the role of manager, etc. A Role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.

Personal Factors:It includes Age and life cycle stage

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Occupation Economic situation Life Style Personality and self concept.

Psychological Factors:It includes these Factors. Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs and attitudes

Laptop Definition A laptop computer, usually called a notebook computer by manufacturers, is a battery- or AC-powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can easily be tranPCed and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as on airplanes, in libraries, temporary offices, and at meetings. A laptop typically weighs less than 5 pounds and is 3 inches or less in thickness. Among the best-known makers of laptop computers are IBM, Apple, Compaq, Dell, and Toshiba. Laptop computers generally cost more than desktop computers with the same capabilities because they are more difficult to design and manufacture. A laptop can effectively be turned into a desktop computer with a docking station, a hardware frame that supplies connections for peripheral input/output devices such as a printer or larger monitor. The less capable port replicator allows you to connect a laptop to a number of peripherals through a single plug. Laptops usually come with displays that use thin-screen technology. The thin film transistor or active matrix screen is brighter and views better at different angles than the STN or dual-scan screen. Laptops use several different approaches for integrating a mouse into the keyboard, including the touch pad, the trackball, and the pointing stick. A serial port also allows a regular mouse to be attached. The PC Card

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is insertable hardware for adding a modem or network interface card to a laptop. CDROM and digital versatile disc drives may be built-in or attachable.

Important Buying Factors: When Planning to Buy a Laptop
Buying a new laptop is an investment for sure, and you can make the best possible choice only by thoroughly assessing your requirements. Whether you’re buying a laptop for the first time or have been using one for ages, before venturing on a new purchase, there are several factors that need to be considered. To make things easier for you, we’ve listed here the most important factors: Processor(CPU) The first bullet point in all those “specification” handouts that a laptop salesperson will show you would most likely mention the processor in the system. The processor is one of the main components in a laptop and directly affects performance as well as battery life. Over the past years, laptop processors were comparatively slower when pitted against desktop alternatives, but not anymore. Today, faster multi-core processors are common in laptops. The processor type differs depending on size, purpose or area of application of the laptop. Most laptops come with Intel or AMD processors, with either single- or multi-core architectures. Considering average applications such as MS Office or other applications like Photoshop, a processor with a minimum clock speed of 1.6 GHz is essential. Unlike desktops, laptops cannot conveniently be upgraded, and so it’s always better to choose a faster processor with the future in mind.

Once you’ve decided on the processor you require, you need to do justice to it by letting it perform to its full potential by providing adequate system memory. RAM, the random memory needed for your operating system, running programs and their data, contributes to the overall system response time. Consider a situation where you have one of the fastest computers around, but not enough memory to hold the programs and their data that you wish to run. Much of the program code and the data will have to be held on disk and brought into memory when needed. At the same time,

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data that is not currently being worked on will be stored temporarily on disk. As the time taken to move data to and from a disk is much greater than moving from memory to the processor, this will slow the system down considerably. In case this stretches your budget, find out if it will be possible to upgrade later, or if it has to be done by a technician. These days, with resource hungry applications, we advise a minimum of 2GBRAMasstandard. Display The display abilities of a laptop are determined by the screen itself, as well as the graphics processor. Screens come in standard sizes and resolutions. Typically, larger displays have a higher resolution, but then this impacts the portability of a laptop. Wide screen displays are also gaining popularity as they help with better viewing and comfortable working. The graphics processor, on the other hand, determines performance that is visible when it comes to 3D graphics and gaming. Laptops come with onboard as well as dedicated graphics solutions. The difference between the two is that while onboard solutions provide low end or very basic performance, dedicated graphics solutions from NVIDIA and ATI significantly enhance performance and allow hi-end applications (newer generation games) and other 3D-intensive applications to run more smoothly.

Every now and then, we have to connect additional peripherals to our laptops. These may be wireless cards, USB drives, printers, mice or other gadgets. An adequate pool of available ports is very useful both for desktops as well as laptops. Most modern day devices are designed to connect to USB ports. If you have devices which use FireWire or other connections such as Bluetooth or infrared, like many mobile phones, PMPs or video cameras do these days, make sure your laptop supports them by having the right connectors. An expansion slot for PC cards is also a good idea. This comes in handy to accommodate an internal modem, wireless card, additional Ethernet ports or a better sound card. With high definition video and audio coming to laptops, an HDMI port is

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also becoming common these days. HDMI replaces the old S-Video port and gives advantages such as single cable connection for both audio and video. Headphone and microphone jacks are common, but some laptops come with dual headphone jacks that can be used to connect your laptop to different devices or even to utilise its multichannel output. Drives Hard drives can be broadly classified into two different categories: 1. HDD (Hard Disk Drive) 2. ODD (Optical Disk Drive) Your storage requirement entirely depends on your usage. A hard drive’s configuration is fairly straight forward in terms of size. These days, laptops come with 250 GB storage on a single HDD, but still you have to decide whether you really need all that space. Another critical factor that determines your overall system speed is the drive’s rotation speed — a drive with a higher spin rate yields faster data access times. However, these are more prone to damage as well. This is one factor you must keep in mind while arriving at your decision. Try and assess how much space you will need in your system, and then multiply by three. Optical drives have evolved considerably over the years. You can either have a simple CD-ROM drive for installing software, all the way up to the latest high definition Bluray DVD burners as part of your configuration. In most cases, laptops now come standard with a dual layer DVD burner. Blu-ray drives are starting to show up, but are extremely expensive.

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Networking One of the basic reasons to have a laptop is to be able to carry out all your tasks while on the move. This involves your work for which you need to send/receive emails. Connecting to the internet or a local network is a crucial function that you need to have f6r your laptop. Most laptops today include a built-in 56 kbps modem and Fast Ethernet (RJ45) port that handle data rates up to 1,000 Mbps. WiFi has now become a common feature in laptops. There are several standards for wireless connectivity, but a very basic connection would require 802.11b/g support having a data rate of up to 54 Mbps.

Size and Weight
You can add up the best of everything and arrive at a monster of a laptop! But then, that’s what portability is all about — balancing your configuration for optimal performance and capacity on the one hand, and portability on the other. Although ultra portable laptops offer light weight solutions and a smaller size, they also sacrifice on processing speeds, ODDs, expansion slots, etc. Therefore, when looking for a laptop, consider these factors before making a final decision. Also consider the weight of the accessories, especially the AC adapter, because at times, laptops are light but after bundling accessories, the whole package can become quite heavy to carry. If you travel frequently, or carry a lot of heavy things while on the move, a lightweight laptop with a small form factor is what you need.
Battery Life

The best looking laptop is no good if it doesn’t offer you adequate battery time. This holds true even if the product you are considering is an Apple Macbook Air. Try to find the listed battery life for the standard battery, and see if it suits your needs. It would be wise to look for a system with at least two hours of battery life under normal conditions. If you need extended battery life, then look for larger battery packs or media bays that can double as extra battery slots when required.

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Warranty Plans
Laptops are more prone to breakdowns due to their portability. When buying a system, make sure to get at least a year’s warranty from the OEM. If you’ll be using the system heavily, a system that comes with a three year warranty is ideal. Consider several models while you are out there shopping. Consider all models that meet your buying criteria, and compare them on features and prices. Your decision should not depend on someone else’s preferences, but on your own. After all, it’s you who is going to use the laptop — don’t be shy to call dealers and customer support of the OEMs to find out more about their equipment. Check out the model physically whenever possible. Ask your friends who may have bought laptops recently or are currently using the one you wish to buy. Narrow your choices down to a few models, and then seek the best deal before finally buying your dream laptop!

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Review of Literature
Conduct a Review of the Branding Literature relating to brand image

Brand Image
The concept of brand image has been very significant to consumer behaviour from post 1950’s. As Aaker and Keller confirmed in Hsieh’s study that, “brand image has been considered a vital part of a firm’s marketing program, not only because it serves as a foundation for tactical marketing mix issues but also because it plays an integral role in building long term brand-equity” (1990).

Earlier definitions of brand image are presented in broad terms by Dobni (1990) who put forward the following writers understanding of brand image. Newman stated it as “everything the people associate with the brand” (1957). Reynolds (1965) confirms that an image was centred on drawing a few key beliefs from a vast variety of sources, thus creating your own impression based on the brand. Herzog’s concurs that brand image was “the sum of the total impressions.” (1973). Indeed, such definitions all concur together; echoed by the words of Levy who stated that “a brand image is a constellation of pictures and ideas in people’s minds that sum up their knowledge of the brand and their main attitudes towards it” (1978). A more recent insight into brand image was added by Woodside who “defined image as the degree of positive or negative affect associated with psychological object” (Reid, 2001). From these definitions a clear trend is appearing with regard to the perception of brand image with key figures around the mid-nineteen hundreds, supporting a collective view that an individual takes in a collaboration of ideas that the company puts forward as a representation of themselves. This allows them to draw a clear conclusion of a company from a few certain points which strike a cord with the individuals.

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Theory behind brand image
According to Tyler (1957), there are three approaches to brand image: Subjective, Objective and Literal. The first type, is a subjective image, this is when a potential customer hears or sees the brand name/logo and feel obliged to purchase the product or service, despite a lack of understanding as to why this is the case. The case simply relates to how the brand is perceived as significant to an individual’s self-consciousness.

The second type of brand image is the objective form which is the attempt to generate an emotional need for the product, leaving you with the feeling that you need to purchase the product so as to satisfy this need.
The third is literal image, i.e. a logo which represents a company. This implies that upon seeing this picture/logo, the name of the company does not need to be uttered as the picture tells the consumer the whole story e.g. Nike with the tick or McDonalds with the golden arches. Evidently, the approach used to obtain and sustain a brand image will vary upon several factors as reflected by the analysis presented by Tyler. Oxenfeldt and Swann’s idea was that the brand image should allow the company to establish its position within its market segment, protecting it from competition, thus allowing them to build upon this with market share growth (Park et al, 1986).

Moreover Park et al (1986) put forward in Bhat’s article that the importance of establishing a brand image relevant to its market segment in which it is based, is significant so as to ascertain a strong brand position, help create a barrier to entry for potential competitors: thus raise the brands performance in the market.
Further, Meenaghan stated that “at the product/brand level the components of identity are in effect the elements of the marketing mix, which combine to form the image of the brand in the mind of the consumer” (1995). From this, it is clear that to gain a strong brand image, one needs to exploit all areas of the marketing mix to achieve what Oxenfeldt and Swann stressed and that brand image is the key component in establishing market dominance. Also, Krishman (1996) in Faircloth’s assessment with the aid of the Landor survey discovered that there is a strong correlation between

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brand equity and brand image. The stronger the brand equity, the stronger the brand image and vice versa. Reid’s (2001) understanding of brand image concerns the product of interaction involving the consumer’s specific experience with a certain brand, helped by advertising which reveals how the brand is to be understood and used, predominantly for brands that contend at parity. Another contemporary understanding of brand image was put forward by Hsieh (2002), who felt that building a brand image based on the identified benefit-based image dimensions consisted of a set of benefit brand associations. This helped consumers understand with clarity what a brand can do for them-symbolically, economically, sensorial or as a utility. White and Hsieh (2002) seem to recognise the key importance that advertising plays in promoting the elements of a brand image thus differentiating the brand from rival brands, giving them a competitive advantage. To summarise, it is plain to see that these academics are in complete agreement that one of the key attributes of a company, if not the key attribute, is the brand image. It is evident that there is a clear link between brand image and market share, as depicted by Krishman’s research. In addition, establishing a strong brand image is indeed a powerful way of developing market power, which consequently helps to create a tight control over its position within the market. Due to barriers to entry, a rounded marketing plan focussing on all aspects of the marketing mix; this also helps to retain a consistent consumer interest.

Brand image: practical example
In this section we will relate how brand image is encompassed in modern organisations and how they use this as a comparative advantage over there rivals to ensure that they keep there competitive edge. Manchester United In the Brand Strategy journal, the players’ were seen to be key to any clubs brand image. The actions of players’ and the perception by supporters is hence key to brand image. For example, ex-Man Utd David Beckham opened the Manchester

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Commonwealth Games wearing an Adidas sweatshirt. These images were then broadcast across the globe and this was much more powerful then his endorsement through advertising. (Brand Strategy briefing: Saving face of sponsorship).

These sort of images enable organisation’s such as Man Utd to develop into icons which according to Douglas B. Holt is one step further than brand image, as ‘they succeed because they forge a deep connection with the culture. In essence, they compete for culture share.’ This can clearly be applied to industries, like, the football industries, as many fans have a strong link between them and their club i.e. it is part of their culture.

In summary, from our research, it is clear that there is a link between successful advertising and a well-established brand image. This was made clear in our theory research, which was also represented, in our practical examples. Furthermore, it appears that to generate a strong brand image, requires continuous, diverse advertising over a period of time, which satisfies all areas of the marketing mix, allowing a firm to generate a rounded brand image. Once this brand image is achieved, it can be built upon, as it will give a firm a competitive advantage, act as a barrier to entry and will act as a stable base so as to develop their organisation. This argument was put forward by Park et al (1986) and backs up the information that was provided in Jobber which stated that there are several benefits that arise from having a strong brand image: “company value, consumer perceptions and preferences, barrier to competition, high profits, base for brand extensions, quality certification and trust” (1996).
The theories suggest that behind nearly all brand images there is a logo, signifying the brand and reflecting all the ideas one associates with the brand i.e. quality, style etc. It is an important factor in differentiating a firm from its rivals, as Rooney (1995) states “brand leaders are often too close to being identical”, hence any factor which differentiates your brand from the main stream is of value.

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Meenaghan (1995) noted that to build up a successful brand image, a well-rounded marketing plan will be required focussing on all areas of the marketing mix. It needs to focus on the organisation’s strengths in all areas and ensure that the good/service is positively differentiated from its closest rivals.

Analysis of Manchester United’s Brand

Manchester United has excelled in the modern game of Football and its activities away from the pitch. It has existed for over a century now and has grown during this period from a small club into a global phenomenon. The strategy of Manchester United in building and sustaining its brand image has been achieved by focusing on the premier football team, which sits at the centre of the business. Indeed, it is crucial that all areas of the marketing mix are exploited to help establish strong market dominance and a sustainable brand image, hence this marketing principle will be central to the analysis of Manchester United’s brand image. Manchester United’s brand image will be critically assessed, paying particular attention to the way in which they have utilised various marketing communications to sustain their image. Moreover, by presenting a timeline of Manchester United’s marketing practices will allow to discriminate as to whether they have been successful or not.

Marketing Mix
Manchester United has established a range of global, commercial partnerships with certain blue chip firms such as Vodafone and Nike. Indeed this has helped put Manchester United on the global scene. Nike has launched their new Cool Motion double layer kit, promoted by many of the players such as Scholes and Ferdinand, wearing Nike Boots, which have helped connect the famous market leader with this Premier Football team. Further, legends such as Cantona have helped create this maverick image for Manchester United, but also having such a combination of powerful sponsors has brought the team a reputable image. (, 2004a).

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British Sky Broadcasting and Manchester United Television
Since 1991, the English league has become the most popular and televised league in the world enabling Manchester United’s playing achievements to be followed globally and on a regular basis. Manchester United has developed a partnership with BSKYB, who provide the distribution, production and programming. MUTV operates a magazine format of past matches, interviews with players and staff and up to the minute information on the club. This is a clear example of brand extension and brand differentiation. Meenaghan (1995) stated that “one must ensure that the good/service is positively differentiated from its closest rivals.” In addition, White and Hsieh cited that “differentiating the brand from rival brands, gives one a competitive advantage.” This is certainly the case with Manchester United as it currently has 75,000 UK subscribers to MUTV, indicating high levels of brand loyalty. Website
Cocoran, I, (2001) noted the partnership with Lycos has helped the club take advantage of its content and brand strength via the development of local-language sites for its non-English speaking fans, specifically in South East Asia. It is clear that Manchester United have recognised the advantages of digital branding as a form of brand extension and in doing so they have transferred the team’s success on the pitch toward a global audience of millions, by embracing the power of the web.

Club Tours -Global extension of the brand.
Manchester United has strengthened its brand image by “expanding its market share in untapped areas around the globe.” Through information researched, (, 2004) Peter Draper, the club’s Director of Marketing, explains how, “Currently, 90 percent of our business comes out of the UK, but 80 percent of the fan base is abroad. There’s clearly an opportunity for us there.” The team has undergone tours of the US, China and the Far East in order to promote Manchester United merchandise, encourage new sponsors and establish a firm fan base abroad. Manchester United has opened at least ten mega-stores across Asia, and plans to develop one hundred Manchester United branded football restaurants over the

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next ten years, with the aim to cash in on the lucrative interest many Asian nations hold in the English game. Manchester United has succeeded in promoting the brand globally and adapting its image to different markets which is highlighted by the fact that they have 40 million fans in Asia (Lifestyle, 2004). Park et al (1986) stated that establishing a brand image relevant to the market segment in which it is based, is significant so as to ascertain a strong brand position. David Gill cites in his PLC report of 2003 that “the key marketing strategy for the Manchester United brand development team is to expand operations into any country where they feel it is possible to convert the local population into loyal followers of the club and future customers in the multinational empire.”

In the early nineties, the extent of the United range was very narrow (consisting of goods such as scarves, mugs and hats), but now the product line is inexhaustible, including everything possible from wallpaper in children’s bedrooms to cuddly toys, soft drinks and underwear. As the popularity of the Internet has come to prominence, this has acted as a further opportunity of extending the brand image around the globe, providing new found supporters in East-Asia and America with the opportunity to purchase their goods. Manchester United have proposed tactics to sell their brand image in countries where popularity is however limited, such as America and the Far-East.

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Old Trafford Club Stadium
The club recognised at an early stage in the brand’s development, the potential earning power of the club’s home ground, Old Trafford with 68,000 supporters walking through the gates on any given match day. Currently shown in Manchester United financial data is that 36% of the club’s revenue is generated from match days. (, 2004c). Reid (2001) stressed that the brand has to be experienced, therefore by providing a well equipped stadium, this helps attract a greater influx of foreign visitors.

The use of price can be viewed as the sole negative factor of Manchester United brand image. Exploitation is evident in the form of the fans that pay outrageous prices for gate admissions (£34) and replica shirts (£45) and via their business partners, the exploitation of children in the sweatshops of Asia as exposed by the BBC’s current affairs flagship Panorama. While the clubs players such as Ferdinand, Giggs and Keane are paid so handsomely to wear the products of leading sports manufacturers the workers in the sweatshops of Indonesia and other Asian countries are earning 72 pence for 24 hours of work. (, 2002). The enormous difference between what the goods cost to manufacture and their price is the reason behind the clubs huge profits and enormous transfer kitty. It is clear that there is a large disparity between with the wealth of Manchester United and the workers who make the products so crucial to the global spread of the brand image.

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Brand Preference
“Customers buying products are buying utility, function, and performance as much as image and status” (Terpstra and Sarathy, 1997, p. 375). Actually, Customer merchandise has implications more than their utilitarian, functional, and commercial significance (Czikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton, 1981; Ericksen, 1996; Leigh and Gabel, 1992; Levy, 1959; Mick, 1986). Consumers do not “consume products for their material utilities but consume the symbolic meaning of those products as portrayed in their images” (Elliot, 1997, p. 286). Therefore, the acquired goods are not only “bundles of attributes that yield particular benefits” (Holt, 1995, p. 1) but also indications of symbolic meanings to the public. Consumers are more likely to use brands to express how they are either similar to or different from people of their ingroup (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). Bhat and Reddy (1998) also reported that brands have practical and emblematic importance for consumers. The emblematic importance, which is attached to brands, is often broadcasted via the use and consumption of brands (Gottdeiner, 1985; McCracken, 1986). Consequently, there seems to be a noteworthy relationship between brand images, consistent with the emblematic importance of brands, and consumers’ self images (Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Individuals are more likely to buy brands whose personalities intimately match their own self images (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). Similarly, consumers express themselves by selecting brands whose personalities are recognized to be consistent with their own personalities (Aaker, 1999; Kassarjian, 1971; Sirgy, 1982). In many circumstances, consumers’ self image influences his/her purchase decisions (Zinkham and Hong, 1991) In other words, consumers use products to illustrate, maintain, and reinforce their self concepts to themselves (Sirgy, 1982; Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988; Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Therefore, “purchase and consumption are good vehicles for self-expression” (Jamal and Goode, 2001, p. 483). Previous research indicated that self image/self expression affect consumers’ product preferences and their purchase intentions (Ericksen, 1996; Mehta, 1999). For example, Ericksen (1996) found a significant relationship between self image and

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intention to buy an American automobile (Ford Escort). Based on this finding, it might be inferred that “individuals prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self” (Jamal and Goode, 2001, p. 483; Belk, et. al., 1982; Ericksen, 1996; Solomon, 1983; Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Moreover, this self image consistency strengthen positive attitude toward products and brands (Ericksen, 1996; Sirgy, 1982, 1985, 1991; Sirgy, et. al., 1997). Specifically, “the more similar a consumer’s self-image is to the brand’s image, the more favorable their evaluations of that brand should be” (Graeff, 1996, p. 5).

Brand Personality
Contrary to product-related attributes, which refer to be performance-oriented for customers, brand personality seems to be representative/self-expressive oriented (Keller, 1993). Brand personality refers to “the set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (Aaker, 1997, p. 347). Moreover, researchers found that brand personality facilitates a consumer to articulate his/her self (Belk, 1988), an ideal self (Malhotra, 1988), or exact aspects of the self (Kleine, Kleine, and Kerman, 1993) via the use of a brand. Additionally, this concept was the essential determinant of consumer preference and usage (Biel, 1993). Brand personality can be shaped and influenced by any direct/indirect contact that the consumer has with the brand (Plummer, 1985). The direct influences included the brand’s user imagery, which is defined as “the set of human characteristics associated with the typical user of a brand” (Aaker, 1997, p. 348); the firm’s workers and/or boss; and the brand’s endorsers. On the other hand, the indirect influences contained product-related features, product category relationships, brand name, mark or emblem, and other marketing mix elements (Batra, Lehmann, and Singh, 1993). Moreover, according to Levy (1959, p. 12), brand personality consisted of demographic characteristics such as gender (“Usually it is hard to evade thinking of inanimate things as male or female”), age (“Just as most, people usually recognize whether something is addressed to them as a man or a woman, so are they sensitive to symbols of age”), and class (“The possession of mink is hardly a matter of winter warmth alone”). Some examples are provided as follows. First, in the tobacco industry, “Virginia Slims tends to be thought of feminine, whereas Marlboro tends to

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perceived as masculine” (Aaker, 1997, p. 348). Second, in the pc business, “Apple is considered to be young, and IBM is considered to be older” (Aaker, 1997, p. 348). Third, based on the various pricing policies in relation to different department stores, “Saks Fifth Avenue is perceived as upper class, whereas K-mart is perceived as blue collar” (Aaker, 1997, p. 348).

Customer Perceived Value
Value has been recognized as “the fundamental basis for all marketing activity” (Halbrook, 1994, p. 22). Value has also been stated as “a cognitive-based construct which captures any benefit-sacrifice discrepancy in much the same way disconfirmation does for variations between expectations and perceived performance” (Patterson and Spreng, 1997, p. 421). Therefore, it is the outcome of a cognitive assessment procedure. Moreover, it is an affective evaluative reaction (Oliver, 1996). Customer perceived value in commerce marketplace was defined as “the tradeoff between the multiple benefits and sacrifices of a supplier’s offering, as perceived by key decision-makers in the customer’s organization, and taking into consideration the available alternative suppliers’ offerings in a specific use situation” (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002, p. 110). That is, there existed three elements in this definition: “(1) the multiple components of value, (2) the subjectivity of value perceptions and (3) the importance of competition” (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002, p. 109). First of all, the multiple benefits refer to a mixture of product/service attributes and/or technological support available related to a specific use condition (Monroe, 1990). The multiple sacrifices were occasionally illustrated in monetary forms (Anderson, et al., 1993). Secondly, customers’ perceived value is subjective, not objective (Kortge and Okonkwo, 1993). In other words, different customers might have a variety of perceived values for consuming the same product/service. Thirdly, customers’ perceived value is associated with competition on the market. Competitors generate sustainable competitive advantage by means of bringing a better trade-off between utilities and sacrifice in a merchandise/service. Alternatively, customer perceived value was consisted of a “take” factor- the benefits a purchaser obtained from the vendor’s contribution- and a “give” factor- the

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buyer’s costs (financial and/or non-monetary) of receiving the offering (Dodds, 1991; Zeithmal, 1988). Even much of the precedent studies have emphasized product quality as the primary “take” factor and price as the “give” factor (Grewal et al., 1998; Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton, 1990; Zeithmal, 1988). But, “service is also a logical driver of perceived value” (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169). For the reason that outstanding before/after sale services provided by the seller really increase the benefits obtained (the take factor) and also “decrease the buyer’s non-monetary costs, such as time, effort, and mental stress” (the give factor) (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169). Consequently, customer perceived value was composed of “service quality, product quality, and price” (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169).

1. Service quality
Perceived service quality was defined as the discrepancy between “expected quality and experienced quality” (Gronroos, 2000, p. 67). Expected quality refers to the expectations of the customer; experienced quality is “the outcome of a series of internal decisions and activities” (Gronroos, 2000, p. 101). In other words, customers’ subjectivity has a significant influence on perceived service. Based on a concrete background of empirical and conceptual research, Gronroos (2000, p. 81) provided a list of The Seven Criteria of Good Perceived Service Quality: “professionalism and skills” (i.e., service providers have required knowledge to offer skills in order to solve customers’ problems in a professional way), “attitudes and behavior” (i.e., service providers are considerate of/friendly to customers), “accessibility and flexibility” (i.e., service providers are easy and adaptive for customers to reach), “reliability and trustworthiness” (i.e., service providers are dependable and honorable), “service recovery” (i.e., service providers are willing to correct mistakes as soon as they can), “serviscape” (i.e., customers feel comfortable in the environment related to the service process), “reputation and credibility” (i.e., service providers can be trusted by customers).

2. Product quality
Generally speaking, people buy products to satisfy needs and wants. That is, consumers would like to obtain a mixture of utilities when they procure items for consumption, and different customers seem to acquire a variety of benefits from the

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same kind of goods. In order to supply the benefits for consumers, marketers need to successfully incorporate the components that constitute a product. These components include “product features (quality, design, branding, and packaging) and customer service (purchase services and usage services)” (Bearden, Ingram, and LaForge, 2001, p. 185). Product quality refers to “how well a product does what it is supposed to do as defined by the customer” (Bearden, Ingram, and LaForge, 2001, p. 186).

3. Price
The price of a product/service can be analyzed associated with customers’ quality expectations and/or their past experiences. If the price is judged too expensive, consumers might not purchase. A low price policy causes poor positioning and neglected opportunities. However, price appears to be a standard for quality in some circumstances. “A higher price level equals a better quality in the minds of customers, especially when the service is highly intangible” (Gronroos, 2000, p. 80).

Based on the literature discussed above, the hypotheses of this study are as follows: 1. There existed a significant relationship between brand preferences and respondents’ demographic characteristics. 2. There existed a significant relationship between brand personality and respondents’ brand preferences. 3. Brand preferences were significantly associated with variation in customers’ perceived value.

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Chaper No.- 03 Research Methodology
Definition of Research:RESEARCH in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge .Also can be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

The research design comprise of the plan and structure of investigation conceived so as to arrive at the responses to the research queries. It there by addresses the aims and objectives of the study, both descriptively and analytically.

The sampling technique adopted for the study is non-probability Random sampling technique according to the convenience of the researcher. A questionnaire was administered to different software companies to obtain data for the purpose of analysis.

Data is collected using a sample of 50 Respondents.

The sample mainly consists of data from the primary sources that are utilized for the purpose of this study. This is done by means of administrating questioners to in different software companies in the city of Udaipur. Secondary data like company journals, newsletters, records etc. were also relied on for retrieving further information.

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Both secondary and primary sources of data are utilized for the purpose of this study. Primary data is collected by means of administering a questionnaire to the different software companies. Secondary data is collected from various records, manuals and other sources.
S. No. 1. Particulars Project Title Description


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Sample Size Sample Unit Area Covered Sampling Procedure Research Design Data Collection Method Research Instrument Type of Questionnaire Type of Questions Method of Survey Type of Sampling

50 Students, Service Men’s, Shopkeepers,etc. Udaipur Random Sampling Exploratory Survey Questionnaire Structured Close Ended, Open Ended Questions Census Survey Stratified Sampling

Importance of research work:
 The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of demographic Factors

and footwear benefits sought on consumer purchasing outcomes in the urban market.
 Research results show that age, household size, education, occupation and

income significantly affect amount of money spent, pairs of footwear purchased and purchase plans, but not average price paid. Gender and residence of respondent were not significantly related to purchasing outcomes.
 The study identified two groups of shoppers seeking significantly different

benefits in purchasing footwear products: the functional shoppers and the alpha

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shoppers. As compared to the functional shoppers, alpha shoppers purchased more pairs of footwear, paid higher price for footwear and spent larger HRK1 amount on footwear. The results are indicative for the segmentation strategy in the footwear market.
 The research also helps footwear manufacturers and retailers to better target

their consumer segments

The research study tends to follow and achieve specific objectives. The objectives of this particular study are:•

To know the personal views of “Udaipur” people regarding choices among various branded PC Laptop.

• To study which branded PC Laptop is mostly preferred by people as per their choices. • Comparison between various branded PC Laptop.

Find out factor influencing the people at the time of purchasing Laptop QUALITY, DURABILITY, VARIETY, PRICE.

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Data Analysis & Interpretation
1. Do you have a Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 PARTICULARS Yes No Total NO. OF RESPONDENTS 25 25 50 PERCENTAGE 50% 50% 100%


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The above table indicates that, 25% people have laptop & 25% people do not have laptop.

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2. If “Yes” which brand do you have?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PARTICULARS Sony Dell HP Compaq IBM Lenovo Acer HCL Total NO. OF RESPONDENTS 4 2 4 4 1 6 2 2 25 PERCENTAGE 16% 8% 16% 16% 4% 24% 8% 8% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 24% people have Lenovo, 16% people have Compaq, 8% have Dell, 16% have Sony, 8% HCL, 8% have Acer, 16% have HP laptop.

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3. When did you purchase your Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 9 PARTICULARS

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 – 5 years More than 5 years

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 10 8 4 2 1 25

PERCENTAGE 40% 32% 16% 8% 4% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 16% people plans for purchasing laptop in 1-2 yr., 4% plan more than 5 yr., 40% plan in less than 6 months, 32% plan in 6 month to 1 yr.

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4. What is main purpose of using Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 9 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 13 10 2 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 52% 40% 8% 100%

Personal Official Both

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 52% purchasing laptop for person use, 8% purchase for both purpose, 40 % purchase for official use.

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5. Your satisfaction level towards your laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 13 2 1 0 25 PERCENTAGE 36% 52% 8% 4% 0% 100%

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied partially satisfied

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 52% people satisfied with their brand laptop, 36% strongly satisfied with their laptop, 8% people dissatisfied with their laptop, 4% people strongly dissatisfied with their laptop.

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6. Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop?

Processor Battery backup Screen size Ram Hard disk

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 8 5 2 1 25

PERCENTAGE 36% 32% 20% 8% 4% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 32% people gives preference to battery backup, 36% for processor, 8% for RAM, 20% give preference screen size, 4% gives HDD.

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7. What are the factors which influence your buying decision?

Price Availability Schemes Quality advertisement

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 7 4 3 2 25

PERCENTAGE 36% 28% 16% 12% 8% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 28% people influencing through availability of product, 36% influencing through price, 16% through schemes, 12% through Quality of laptop & 8% through advertisement.

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8. Are you switch over to any other brand to this brand?

Yes No

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 20% people want to switch their present laptop.

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Person do not have laptop. 9. When would you purchase a laptop?

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 – 5 years More than 5 years

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 11 10 3 1 0 25

PERCENTAGE 44% 40% 12% 4% 0% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 44% people purchase laptop in less than 6 months, 40% in 6 month to 1 yr., 12% in 1-2 yr. & 4% people plans for purchasing laptop in 2-5 yr.

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10. What price range will you be prepared to pay for such a Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 12 6 2 3 2 0 25 PERCENTAGE 48% 24% 8% 12% 8% 0% 100%

Rs. 25000 – 30000 Rs. 35000 – 40000 Rs. 45000 – 50000 Rs. 30000 – 35000 Rs. 40000 – 45000 Above 50000

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 12% choose the range of 30000-35000, 48% for 25000-30000, 8% choose for 45000-50000 & 8% choose for 40000-45000.

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10. Rank the brand according to your preference?
SR.NO . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 7 1 4 7 2 3 1 1 Total 26 RANK 1 5 3 2 8 4 7 6 PERCENTAGE 27% 4% 15% 27% 8% 12% 4% 4% 100%

Sony Dell HP Compaq IBM Lenovo Acer HCL

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 27% choose Compaq, 4% choose Dell, 27% choose Sony, 4% for HCL, 4& for Acer, 11% for Lenovo, 8% for IBM.

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11. The main purpose of purchasing the laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 13 9 3 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 52% 36% 12% 100%

Personal Official Both

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 52% people choose for personal use, 12% for both use & 36% for Official use.

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12. What are the factors which influence your buying decisions? (Rank 1-5)
SR.NO . 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 10 3 5 6 1 25 RANK 1 2 4 3 5 PERCENTAGE 40% 12% 20% 24% 4% 100%

Price Availability Schemes Quality Advertisement Total

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 12% people influencing through availability of product, 40% through price, 24% through quality, 20% through schemes & 4% through advertisement.

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13. Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTICULARS

Processor Battery backup Screen size Ram Hard disk Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 8 11 2 2 2 25

PERCENTAGE 32% 44% 8% 8% 8% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 44% give preference to battery backup of laptop, 32% to processor, 8% for screen size, 8% for RAM, 8% for HDD.

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14. Please tick one of the option for each of the configuration items for your desire laptop? (i) Processor
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTICULARS

Celeron Centrino Duo Pentium Core Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 2 5 9 5 4 25

PERCENTAGE 8% 20% 36% 20% 16% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 36% give preference to Duo processor, 20% for Pentium, 20% for Centrino, 16% for Core & 8% for Celeron.

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(ii) RAM

256 MB 512 MB 1 GB 2 GB Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 1 2 12 10 25

PERCENTAGE 4% 8% 48% 40% 60%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 48% give preference to 1 GB, 8% for 512 MB, 4% for 256 MB & 40% for 2 GB.

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SR.NO. 1 3 4 2 5

Battery backup

2.5 hrs. 3.5 hrs. 3 hrs. 4 hrs. Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 3 10 5 7 25

PERCENTAGE 12% 40% 20% 28% 100%

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INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 40%b gives preference to 3.5 Hrs., 12% for 2.5 Hrs., 20% for 3 Hrs., 28% for 4 Hrs.

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SR.NO. 1 3 4 5

Screen size

12” 15” 14” Total


PERCENTAGE 12% 68% 20% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 68%b gives preference to 15”, 20% for 14” & 12% for 12”.

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Marketing is a very crucial activity in every business organization. Every product produced within an industry has to be market. ted other wise it will remain as unsold stock, which will be of no value. I have realized this fact after completion of my project. Despite of various difficulties and limitations faced during my project on the topic “A STUDY OF CUSTOMER PURCHASE DECISION TOWARDS LAPTOPS”. I have tried my level best to find out the most relevant information for the organization to complete the assignment that was given to me. After completion of my project I have gained several experiences in the field or sales marketing. I have got the opportunity to meet various people, which fluctuate in different situation and time. project has given me the opportunity to have first experience in the corporate world. Theoretical knowledge of a person remains dormant until it is used and tested in the practical life. The research has given to me the chance to apply my theoretical knowledge that I have acquired in my classroom to the real business world. I have completed my project in which are involved in its successful completion. In spite of few limitations and hindrance in the project I found that the work was a challenge and fruitful. It gives enough knowledge about the computers market and the distribution process undertaken by an organization. This summer training project has enabled my capability in order to manage business effectively and in my career in future.

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Suggestion & Recommendation
 Laptop Company having large number of channel partners but it is not supporting
& taking care all of them equally which results in increasing discontentment among new channel partners because its not possible for company to support all of them equally. Company should take some positive action against it.

 Company executive should visit dealers on regular basis.  They Should pay proper attention towards checking of various components of PC
before end user delivery. Otherwise it tends towards defame of brand name in comparison to rivals.

 Need to expend customer care center .  Proper attention should be paid for advertisement planning otherwise it may lead
to problem for dealer as well as for company.

 Company should tie up with some event management company to organize various
promotional activities like canopy, Carnival.

 Company should make policy for fixed end user price for all dealers so that fair
game will be played & dealer would not to compromise on their margin.

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The lists of reference for the purpose of completing this marketing project are as given below: BOOKS: Marketing Research Marketing Research Marketing Management  Kothari C. R. (2005) International Limited, Fifth Edition  Saxena Rajan, Marketing Management: Tata Mcgraw, New Delhi, 2006 INTERNET: By: G. C. Beri By: Boyd and Stasch By: Philip Kotler ‘RESEARCH METHODOLOGY’ New Age

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A study of customer’s purchase decision towards laptop with special Reference to Udaipur.
Name: – ……………………………………………………………………………. Age: – ………………… Gender: – Male / Female…………………………………. Address:- …………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Contact No. :- …………………….. Occupation: – ………………………………… Income (yearly)………………………………… 1. a. b. Do you have a Laptop?

Yes No (If answer is “No” than turn to Q. No. 10) 2. If “Yes” which brand do you have? Sony b. IBM dell d. Lenovo HP f. Acer Compaq h. HCL 3. When did you purchase your Laptop?

a. c. e. g. a. b. c. d. e.

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 – 5 years More than 5 years 4. What is main purpose of using Laptop? a. Personal b. Official c. Both 5. Your satisfaction level towards your laptop? a. Strongly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Dissatisfied d. Strongly dissatisfied e. partially satisfied

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6. a. c. e.

Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop? b. d. Ram Hard disk

Processor Battery backup Screen size

7. What are the factors which influence your buying decision? a. Price b. Quality c. Availability d. advertisement e. Schemes 8. a. b. 9. a. b. Yes No Are you planning for purchase another laptop? Yes No (If answer is “yes” than continue…….) 10. a. b. c. d. e. When would you purchase a laptop? Are you switch over to any other brand to this brand?

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 – 5 years More than 5 years 11. What price range will you be prepared to pay for such a Laptop?

a. c. e. a. c. e. g. a. b. c.

Rs. 25000 – 30000 b. Rs. 30000 – 35000 Rs. 35000 – 40000 d. Rs. 40000 – 45000 Rs. 45000 – 50000 f. Above 50000 12. Rank the brand according to your preference? Sony b. IBM dell d. Lenovo HP f. Acer Compaq h. HCL 13. The main purpose of purchasing the laptop? Personal Official Both

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14. a. c. e.

What are the factors which influence your buying decisions? (Rank 1-5) b. d. Quality Advertisement

Price Availability Schemes

15 Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop? a. c. e. Processor Battery backup Screen size b. d. Ram Hard disk

16. Please tick one of the option for each of the configuration items for your Desire laptop? (i) Processor a. Celeron b. Pentium c. centrino d. core e. duo (ii) RAM a. 256 MB c. 1 GB (iii) Battery backup a. 2.5 hrs. c. 3.5 hrs. (iv) Screen size a. 12” c. 15” b. d. b. d. b. 512 MB 2 GB 3 hrs. 4 hrs. 14”

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